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To extend understanding of the genetic architecture and molecular basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D), we conducted a meta-analysis of genetic variants on the Metabochip, including 34,840 cases and 114,981 controls, overwhelmingly of European descent. We identified ten previously unreported T2D susceptibility loci, including two showing sex-differentiated(More)
Mutations in the beta-amyloid precursor protein are strongly associated with some cases of familial Alzheimer's disease. The normal physiological role of beta-amyloid precursor protein in the brain was evaluated in a cross-sectional analysis of mice deficient in beta-amyloid precursor protein. Compared with wild-type control mice the beta-amyloid precursor(More)
Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a member of a larger gene family including amyloid precursor-like proteins (APLP), APLP2 and APLP1. To examine the function of APLP2 in vivo, we generated APLP2 knockout (KO) mice. They are of normal size, fertile, and appear healthy up to 22 months of age. We observed no impaired axonal outgrowth of olfactory sensory(More)
Ghrelin, a stomach-derived orexigenic hormone, has stimulated great interest as a potential target for obesity control. Pharmacological evidence indicates that ghrelin's effects on food intake are mediated by neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) in the central nervous system. These include intracerebroventricular application of antibodies(More)
Meta-analysis is a powerful approach to combine evidence from multiple studies to make inference about one or more parameters of interest, such as regression coefficients. The validity of the fixed effect model meta-analysis depends on the underlying assumption that all studies in the meta-analysis share the same effect size. In the presence of(More)
To understand the in vivo function of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) we generated an APP null mutation in mice by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. We show here that homozygous APP deficient mice were produced at expected frequencies. Neither APP mRNA nor protein could be detected in these animals. Yet the homozygous APP mutant(More)
On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of 1.0×10(-21). It matches the waveform predicted by general relativity for the(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) senescence is an age-related process that impairs the capacity for tissue repair and compromises the clinical use of autologous MSCs for tissue regeneration. Here, we describe the effects of SIRT1, a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, on age-related MSCs senescence. Knockdown of SIRT1 in young MSCs induced cellular senescence and(More)
Approximately 10% of cases of Alzheimer's disease are familial and associated with autosomal dominant inheritance of mutations in genes encoding the amyloid precursor protein, presenilin 1 (PS1) and presenilin 2 (PS2). Mutations in PS1 are linked to about 25% of cases of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. PS1, which is endoproteolytically processed(More)
The pulsatile nature of GH release is apparently regulated by alternating sequential changes in two hypothalamic hormones, GH releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin. Entrainment of this pulsatility appears to involve GH-mediated negative feedback. Recently a new receptor involved in GH release was cloned. Activation of this receptor by GH-releasing(More)