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A hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the preferential loss of substantia nigra dopamine neurons. Here, we identify a new parkin interacting substrate, PARIS (ZNF746), whose levels are regulated by the ubiquitin proteasome system via binding to and ubiquitination by the E3 ubiquitin ligase, parkin. PARIS is a KRAB and zinc finger protein that(More)
Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and PARK2/Parkin mutations cause autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson's disease. Upon a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) in human cells, cytosolic Parkin has been reported to be recruited to mitochondria, which is followed by a stimulation of mitochondrial(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by the degeneration of dopamine (DA) and non-DA neurons, the almost uniform presence of Lewy bodies, and motor deficits. Although the majority of PD is sporadic, specific genetic defects in rare familial cases have provided unique insights into the pathogenesis of PD.(More)
Leucine-rich repeat kinase-2 (LRRK2) mutations are a common cause of Parkinson's disease. Here we identify inhibitors of LRRK2 kinase that are protective in in vitro and in vivo models of LRRK2-induced neurodegeneration. These results establish that LRRK2-induced degeneration of neurons in vivo is kinase dependent and that LRRK2 kinase inhibition provides a(More)
Mutations in PARK2/Parkin, which encodes a ubiquitin E3 ligase, cause autosomal recessive Parkinson disease (PD). Here we show that the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl phosphorylates tyrosine 143 of parkin, inhibiting parkin's ubiquitin E3 ligase activity and protective function. c-Abl is activated by dopaminergic stress and by dopaminergic neurotoxins,(More)
Mutations in parkin are largely associated with autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism. The underlying mechanism of pathogenesis in parkin-associated Parkinson's disease (PD) is thought to be due to the loss of parkin's E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. A subset of missense and nonsense point mutations in parkin that span the entire gene and represent the(More)
c-Abl is activated in the brain of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-intoxicated mice where it inhibits parkin through tyrosine phosphorylation leading to the accumulation of parkin substrates, and neuronal cell death. In the present study, we evaluated the in vivo efficacy of nilotinib, a brain(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative movement disorder. Whereas the majority of PD cases are sporadic, rare genetic defects have been linked to this prevalent movement disorder. Mutations in DJ-1 are associated with autosomal recessive early-onset PD. The exact biochemical function of DJ-1 has remained elusive. Here we report the(More)
Mutation in leucine-rich repeat kinase-2 (LRRK2) is the most common cause of late-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Although most cases of PD are sporadic, some are inherited, including those caused by LRRK2 mutations. Because these mutations may be associated with a toxic gain of function, controlling the expression of LRRK2 may decrease its cytotoxicity.(More)
Autosomal-recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP) is caused by loss-of-function mutations of the parkin gene. Parkin, a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase, is responsible for the ubiquitination and degradation of substrate proteins that are important in the survival of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Accordingly, the abnormal accumulation of(More)