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Synthetic cannabinoids (CBs) such as the JWH series have caused social problems concerning their abuse liability. Because the JWH series produces euphoric and hallucinogenic effects, they have been distributed illegally under street names such as "Spice" and "Smoke". Many countries including Korea have started to schedule some of the JWH series compounds as(More)
Tramadol is an opioid analgesic agent that has been the subject of a series of case reports suggesting potential for misuse or abuse. However, it is not a controlled substance and is not generally considered addictive in Korea. In this study, we examined the dependence potential and abuse liability of tramadol as well as its effect on the dopaminergic and(More)
Fifty-six Newcastle disease virus strains collected from 2000 to 2006 could be grouped into subgenotype VIId. However, they displayed cumulative mutations in and around the linear epitope of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (residues 345 to 353) with time. The antigenicities of the variants that became predominant in Korea differ from each other and from the(More)
The swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) is considered to be a new zoonotic agent due to its close genomic resemblance to the human HEV and its ability to infect nonhuman primates. Hepatitis caused by HEV infection has been a serious public health problem in developing countries. However, recent seroprevalence studies indicate that the HEV also circulates in(More)
BACKGROUND A Brucella eradication program has been executed in Korea. To effectively prevent and control brucellosis, a molecular method for genetic identification and epidemiological trace-back must be established. As part of that, the MLVA typing assay was evaluated and applied to B. abortus isolates for analyzing the characteristics of the regional(More)
Salmonella (S.) Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis are the major causative agents of food-borne illnesses worldwide. Currently, a rapid detection system using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been applied for other food-borne pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp. A multiplex real-time PCR was(More)
A recombinant La Sota strain (KBNP-C4152R2L) in which fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) genes were replaced with those of a contemporary genotype VIId virus, KBNP-4152, has been developed. To attenuate the virulence of the recombinant strain, the F cleavage motif was mutated from (112)RRQKR(116) to (112)GRQAR(116), and to reduce pathogenic(More)
It was reported that the aluminosilicate material mica activated macrophages and showed its immunostimulating effects. However, the mechanisms by which it exerts these effects are unclear. To address this, we evaluated the effects of mica fine particles (MFP, 804.1 ± 0.02 nm) on the murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. Specifically, RAW 264.7 cells were(More)
PhiSG-JL2 is a newly discovered lytic bacteriophage infecting Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum but is nonlytic to a rough vaccine strain of serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum (SG-9R), S. enterica serovar Enteritidis, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, and S. enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Pullorum. The phiSG-JL2 genome is 38,815(More)
Corn, one of the most important forage crops worldwide, has proven to be a useful expression vehicle due to the availability of established transformation procedures for this well-studied plant. The exotoxin Apx, a major virulence factor, is recognized as a common antigen of Actinobacillus (A.) pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine(More)