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Plasma nitrite and nitrate determinations are increasingly being used in clinical chemistry as markers for the activity of nitric oxide synthase and the production of nitric oxide radicals. However, a systematic evaluation of the determination of nitrite and nitrate in plasma has not been performed. In this study the recovery and stability of nitrite and(More)
This review discusses the contributions of the three nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) isozymes neuronal NOS (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) to the function and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Small (nanomolar) quantities of NO produced by calcium-dependent nNOS play a physiological role in peristalsis and sphincter function(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS During endotoxemia, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide production in the liver is increased. NO has been suggested to have a hepatoprotective function. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of iNOS and the effect of different NO synthase inhibitors on liver damage and hemodynamics(More)
BACKGROUND Metformin is used in the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus type II and improves liver function in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Metformin activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the cellular energy sensor that is sensitive to changes in the AMP/ATP-ratio. AMPK is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR).(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS In acute liver failure, hepatocytes are exposed to various cytokines that activate both cell survival and apoptotic pathways. NF-kappaB is a central transcription factor in these responses. Recent studies indicate that blocking NF-kappaB causes apoptosis, indicating the existence of NF-kappaB-regulated anti-apoptotic genes. In the present(More)
OBJECTIVES Procalcitonin (PCT) is a 13 kD protein of which plasma concentrations are strongly increased in inflammatory states. PCT concentrations are claimed to have a more powerful discriminatory value for bacterial infection than the acute phase proteins serum amyloid A (SAA) or C-reactive protein (CRP). The source of production and its mechanism of(More)
BACKGROUND Inhibition of NF-kappaB activation has been suggested as an anti-inflammatory treatment strategy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, NF-kappaB regulated genes like inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are also involved in cell survival mechanisms. METHODS Review of the literature on NF-kappaB activation and iNOS induction in IBD. (More)
The coding region of the hamster desmin gene was fused to the 5' flanking sequences of the hamster vimentin gene and introduced into the germ line of mice. The expression of this intermediate filament gene construct (pVDes) was analyzed at the RNA and protein level in transgenic mice as well as in fibroblast cell lines and primary hepatocyte cultures(More)