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Plasma nitrite and nitrate determinations are increasingly being used in clinical chemistry as markers for the activity of nitric oxide synthase and the production of nitric oxide radicals. However, a systematic evaluation of the determination of nitrite and nitrate in plasma has not been performed. In this study the recovery and stability of nitrite and(More)
To the Editor: Nitric oxide (NO ⅐) plays an important role both in maintaining normal homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of various disorders (1). NO ⅐ has a short biological half-life and is rapidly converted into its stable metab-olites, nitrite and nitrate (1, 2). In plasma, nitrite is rapidly oxidized to nitrate (2). Determination of nitrite and(More)
The nitric oxide radical (NO •) is an important mediator of both physiological and pathophysiological processes. NO • is produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS; EC 1.14.13.39), an enzyme that exists in three isoforms encoded by distinct genes [1, 2]. All isoforms of NOS cata-lyze the conversion of l-arginine into citrulline and NO •. In this reaction, which(More)
BACKGROUND Gastric carcinomas can be divided into intestinal and diffuse types, with the last type having a worse prognosis. AIMS To investigate whether specific patterns in the expression of apoptosis related proteins correlate with carcinoma type and/or prognosis METHODS The expression of Fas, Bcl-2, Bax, Bcl-xl, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and(More)
This review discusses the contributions of the three nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) isozymes neuronal NOS (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) to the function and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Small (nanomolar) quantities of NO produced by calcium-dependent nNOS play a physiological role in peristalsis and sphincter function(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS During endotoxemia, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide production in the liver is increased. NO has been suggested to have a hepatoprotective function. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of iNOS and the effect of different NO synthase inhibitors on liver damage and hemodynamics(More)
BACKGROUND Metformin is used in the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus type II and improves liver function in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Metformin activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the cellular energy sensor that is sensitive to changes in the AMP/ATP-ratio. AMPK is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR).(More)
OBJECTIVES Procalcitonin (PCT) is a 13 kD protein of which plasma concentrations are strongly increased in inflammatory states. PCT concentrations are claimed to have a more powerful discriminatory value for bacterial infection than the acute phase proteins serum amyloid A (SAA) or C-reactive protein (CRP). The source of production and its mechanism of(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS In acute liver failure, hepatocytes are exposed to various cytokines that activate both cell survival and apoptotic pathways. NF-kappaB is a central transcription factor in these responses. Recent studies indicate that blocking NF-kappaB causes apoptosis, indicating the existence of NF-kappaB-regulated anti-apoptotic genes. In the present(More)
BACKGROUND Inhibition of NF-kappaB activation has been suggested as an anti-inflammatory treatment strategy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, NF-kappaB regulated genes like inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are also involved in cell survival mechanisms. METHODS Review of the literature on NF-kappaB activation and iNOS induction in IBD. (More)