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OBJECTIVE To investigate whether levetiracetam (LTC) alters corticospinal excitability in humans. BACKGROUND Although the antiepileptic activity of LTC is well recognized, its mechanism of action has yet to be determined. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used to investigate the pharmacologic effects of various antiepileptic drugs on human(More)
Alien Hand Syndrome is defined as unwilled, uncontrollable, but seemingly purposeful movements of an upper limb. Two major criteria for the diagnosis are complaint of a foreign limb and complex, autonomous, involuntary motor activity that is not part of an identifiable movement disorder. After a cerebrovascular accident in the corpus callosum, the parietal,(More)
We investigated the influence of self-paced, phasic voluntary hand movement on the excitability of the ipsilateral motor cortex. Single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied to the right motor cortex triggered by EMG onset of self-paced movements of individual right hand fingers at intervals ranging from 13 to 2,000 ms. Motor(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate cortical regions related to voluntary blinking. METHODS Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied to the facial motor cortex (M1) and the midline frontal region (Fz) in 10 healthy subjects with eyes opened and closed. Motor-evoked potentials were recorded from the orbicularis oculi (OOC), orbicularis oris (OOR), abductor(More)
OBJECTIVE The motor cortex may be subject to tonic inhibitory drive. One inhibitory mechanism is supported by activity at benzodiazepine (BZP) receptors. In this study we investigate whether or not the BZP antagonist, flumazenil, increases cortical motor excitability in humans. METHODS Eight healthy subjects received a 1 mg intravenous (i.v.) loading dose(More)
Conservation of the ipsilateral upper limb function is important in stroke subjects with contralateral hemiplegia, because often it must serve as a compensatory tool for activities of daily livings (ADLs). However, the amount of functional loss and/or the recovery pattern of the ipsilateral upper limb are not well known. We plan to investigate how to(More)
BACKGROUND The human motor cortex (M1) has a role in motor learning. Antiepileptic drugs that suppress M1 excitability may affect learning, presumably by inhibiting long-term potentiation. Levetiracetam, a new antiepileptic drug with a unique preclinical profile, also suppresses M1 excitability, but in a way that is different from other antiepileptic drugs.(More)
Objective: To evaluate the correlation between the K-BBS (Korean version of Berg balance scale), a tool for assessing balance, with the WISCI (walking index for spinal cord injury), and SCIM (spinal cord independence measure) in patients with post-acute spinal cord injuries. In addition, the difference in the K-BBS, WISCI, SCIM according to the degree of(More)
Immunosuppressive therapy can improve clinical, biochemical and histological features and considerably prolong survival in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Although ethnicity may affect disease severity and presentation, the long-term outcome of immunosuppression in Korean populations is unknown. This study was aimed to assess the efficacy of(More)