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The modified cinchona alkaloid-catalyzed direct Mannich-type reaction of N-unprotected 2-oxindoles with N-Ts-imine was developed to afford anti-3,3-disubstituted 2-oxindoles with vicinal chiral quaternary and tertiary carbon centers in yields up to 90% with excellent diastereoselectivities (anti/syn up to 95:5) and good enantioselectivies (up to 89% ee). A(More)
Protein libraries were displayed on the spore coat of Bacillus subtilis, and this method was demonstrated as a tool for directed evolution under extreme conditions. Escherichia coli, yeast, and phage display suffer from protein folding, and viability issues. On the other hand, spores avoid folding concerns by the natural sporulation process, and they remain(More)
We report both experimentally and theoretically that enhanced acoustic transmission can occur in the subwavelength region through a thin but stiff structured plate without any opening. This exotic acoustic phenomenon is essentially distinct from the previous related studies originated from, either collectively or individually, the interaction of the(More)
Time-reversal invariant topological insulator is widely recognized as one of the fundamental discoveries in condensed matter physics, for which the most fascinating hallmark is perhaps a spin-based topological protection, the absence of scattering of conduction electrons with certain spins on matter surface. Recently, it has created a paradigm shift for(More)
Hierarchical, three-fold symmetrical dendritic gold was prepared in an aqueous solution of the quaternary ammonium cationic surfactant dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB). Similar surfactants with different head groups and hydrocarbon chain lengths were also used for comparison. Two-fold and one-fold symmetrical dendritic gold nanostructures were(More)
A globular protein, β-lactoglobulin (BLG), was used to decorate reduced graphene oxide sheets (RGO) and the obtained BLG-RGO composite can be dispersed in aqueous solution with pH-sensitive solubility. The morphology of the BLG-RGO composite was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results indicate that(More)
Using the rigorous multiple-scattering theory, we study the dispersion relation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in two dimensional dielectric photonic crystals (PCs) and metallic photonic crystals (MPCs) in the low-frequency limit. Analytic formula for the effective velocity of EM waves in PCs and MPCs is obtained. Accuracy of our formula is checked by(More)
In this paper, a broadband acoustic right-angle bend device in air is designed, fabricated and experimentally characterized. Perforated panels with various hole-sizes are used to construct the bend structure. Both the simulated and experimental results verify that the acoustic beam can be rotated effectively through the acoustic bend in a wide frequency(More)
Bacillus subtilis spores can be used for protein display to engineer protein properties. This method overcomes viability and protein-folding concerns associated with traditional protein display methods. Spores remain viable under extreme conditions and the genotype/phenotype connection remains intact. In addition, the natural sporulation process eliminates(More)
In the present study, we have synthesized a room-temperature ionic liquid by mixing imidazolium-type zwitterions with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. We constructed nanostructured aqueous lithium-ion conductors having hexagonal, lamellar, and bicontinuous cubic structures by the self-assembly of this amphiphilic ionic liquid. These(More)