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Akt negatively regulates apoptotic pathways at a premitochondrial level through phosphorylation and modulation of proteins such as Bad, Forkhead proteins, and GSK-3beta. Akt has also been shown to protect cell death at a post-mitochondrial level, although its downstream targets have not been well documented. Here, we demonstrate that Akt, including AKT1 and(More)
Accumulated studies have shown that activation of the Akt pathway plays a pivotal role in malignant transformation and chemoresistance by inducing cell survival, growth, migration, and angiogenesis. Therefore, Akt is believed to be a critical target for cancer intervention. Here, we report the discovery of a small molecule Akt pathway inhibitor, Akt/protein(More)
Normal cellular functions of hamartin and tuberin, encoded by the TSC1 and TSC2 tumor suppressor genes, are closely related to their direct interactions. However, the regulation of the hamartin-tuberin complex in the context of the physiologic role as tumor suppressor genes has not been documented. Here we show that insulin or insulin growth factor (IGF) 1(More)
While NF-kappaB is considered to play key roles in the development and progression of many cancers, the mechanisms whereby this transcription factor is activated in cancer are poorly understood. A key oncoprotein in a variety of cancers is the serine-threonine kinase Akt, which can be activated by mutations in PI3K, by loss of expression/activity of PTEN,(More)
We established previously that X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (Xiap) is a determinant of cisplatin (CDDP) resistance in human ovarian cancer cells and that down-regulation of Xiap sensitizes cells to CDDP in the presence of wild-type p53. Furthermore, Xiap up-regulates the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt pathway by increasing Akt(More)
Geranylgeranyltransferase I inhibitors (GGTIs) represent a new class of anticancer drugs. However, the mechanism by which GGTIs inhibit tumor cell growth is still unclear. Here, we demonstrate that GGTI-298 and GGTI-2166 induce apoptosis in both cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant human ovarian epithelial cancer cells by inhibition of PI3K/AKT and survivin(More)
While NFB is considered to play key roles in the development and progression of many cancers, the mechanisms whereby this transcription factor is activated in cancer are poorly understood. A key oncoprotein in a variety of cancers is the serine–threonine kinase Akt, which can be activated by mutations in PI3K, by loss of expression/activity of PTEN, or(More)
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a mediator of cell growth, survival, and energy metabolism at least partly through its ability to regulate mRNA translation. mTOR is activated downstream of growth factors, insulin, and Akt-dependent signaling associated with oncoprotein expression or loss of the tumor-suppressor PTEN. In this regard, mTOR(More)
The serine/threonine protein kinase Akt promotes cell survival, growth, and proliferation through phosphorylation of different downstream substrates. A key effector of Akt is the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Akt is known to stimulate mTORC1 activity through phosphorylation of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) and PRAS40, both negative regulators(More)
Although cisplatin derivatives are first-line chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer, chemoresistance remains a major hurdle to successful therapy and the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Apoptosis is the cellular underpinning of cisplatin-induced cell death, which is associated with expression of specific(More)