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We compared the level of malaria infection in children from 22 communities in an area of unstable transmission in the Usambara Mountains, Tanzania, immediately before and after one of the strongest recorded El Niño southern oscillation events. Although this event resulted in 2.4 times more rainfall than normal, we found strikingly less malaria than in the(More)
The profile of filarial-specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG4, and Wuchereria bancrofti-specific circulating antigen (Og4C3) was analyzed in individuals one year of age and older in a community with high endemicity for Bancroftian filariasis. The overall microfilarial (mf) prevalence in the examined population was 29%. Fifty-one percent of the population(More)
BACKGROUND In Tanzania, malaria is the major cause of morbidity and mortality, accounting for about 30% of all hospital admissions and around 15% of all hospital deaths. Severe anaemia and cerebral malaria are the two main causes of death due to malaria in Tanga, Tanzania. METHODS This was a prospective observational hospital-based study conducted from(More)
There is a consensus that malaria is a growing problem in African highlands. This is surprising because many parts of the highlands were considered too cold to support transmission. In this report, we examined how transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in six villages changed along an altitude transect in the Usambara Mountains, Tanzania, from 300 m to 1700(More)
We investigated whether the risk of infection with malaria parasites was related to topography in the Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Clinical surveys were carried out in seven villages, situated at altitudes from 300 m to 1650 m. Each village was mapped and incorporated into a Digital Terrain Model. Univariate analysis showed that the risk of splenomegaly(More)
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and haemoglobin S (HbS) are very common genetic disorders in sub Saharan Africa, where malaria is endemic. These genetic disorders have been associated with protection against malaria and are therefore under strong selection pressure by the disease. In November-December 2003, we conducted a cross-sectional(More)
A randomized, double-'blind', placebo-controlled trial of weekly Maloprim (dapsone-pyrimethamine, D-P) for malaria prophylaxis was conducted at Magoda village in north-eastern Tanzania. The effect of D-P on the incidence of clinical malaria, Plasmodium falciparum prevalence and density, splenomegaly, and packed cell volume (PCV) was investigated in a cohort(More)
Diversity and complexity of infections with Plasmodium falciparum were described from cross-sectional surveys in November-December 1996 in 6 villages in the Usambara Mountains, Tanzania, where transmission ranged markedly from 0.03 to 91 infective bites per individual per year. Forty-eight samples, stratified for age and parasite densities, were examined(More)
In the Muheza region of Tanzania, an area with holoendemic malaria, the proportion of responders with IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reactivities to recombinant rhoptry-associated protein-1 (rRAP-1) as well as IgG reactivities to a repeat region of the acidic-basic repeat antigen (ABRA) increased with age. The proportion of responders with IgM(More)
Malaria is a major public health problem particularly in rural Sub-Saharan Africa. In most urban areas, malaria transmission intensity is low thus monitoring trends using reliable tools is crucial to provide vital information for future management of the disease. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) such as Paracheck Pf are now increasingly adopted for Plasmodium(More)