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OBJECTIVES To assess HIV and syphilis prevalence, HIV-related behaviours and testing for HIV in female sex workers (FSW) in Sudan. DESIGN Bio-behavioural surveys using respondent-driven sampling were carried out among FSW in the capital cities of 14 states in Sudan in 2011-2012. HIV and syphilis testing was done by rapid tests. RESULTS 4220 FSW aged(More)
Neu-Laxova syndrome (NLS) is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by a recognizable pattern of severe malformations leading to prenatal or early postnatal lethality. Homozygous mutations in PHGDH, a gene involved in the first and limiting step in L-serine biosynthesis, were recently identified as the cause of the disease in three families. By(More)
BACKGROUND It is perceived that little is known about the epidemiology of HIV infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). The primary objective of this study was to assess the status of the HIV epidemic among PWID in MENA by describing HIV prevalence and incidence. Secondary objectives were to describe the risk(More)
8 The mere association of the words sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS, and sexuality, to Middle East and North Africa (MENA) in any discussion , social or academic, seems to elicit heated debates and controversy. The MENA region is, in the minds of many, an area where socio-cultural sensitivities surrounding sex and disease still(More)
OBJECTIVE An increasing number of countries have been estimating the distribution of new adult HIV infections by modes of transmission (MOT) to help prioritise prevention efforts. We compare results from studies conducted between 2008 and 2012 and discuss their use for planning and responding to the HIV epidemic. METHODS The UNAIDS recommended MOT model(More)
BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the context in which methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is provided for opioid-dependent prisoners, and to identify barriers against further scale-up of MMT in Ghezel Hesar prison in Tehran. METHODS This was a cross-sectional qualitative study using field observations, focus group discussions, and individual(More)
In formulating the second national strategic plan for prevention of HIV/AIDS in the Islamic Republic of Iran a more evidence-based approach was needed. This paper reports on a systematic review of the local evidence about the determinants of HIV/AIDS transmission in 3 categories: poor knowledge and negative attitudes about HIV transmission; injection drug(More)
UNLABELLED Background In this study data of three national surveys conducted among female sex workers (FSW), prison inmates and people who inject drugs (PWID) were presented and compared in relation to knowledge, attitude, and practises. METHODS The surveys were conducted in 2009 and 2010 and included 2546 PWID, 872 FSW and 5530 prison inmates. Knowledge,(More)
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at growing risk of HIV infection in many parts of the world; however, the epidemic has not been well explored among this population in most Arab countries. To estimate the prevalence of HIV and related risk behaviors among MSM in Yemen, we recruited 261 adult MSM from the port cities of Aden and Al-Hudaydah through venue-(More)
People living with HIV (PLWH) are often subject to discrimination. The causes, types, and consequences of this stigma in Iran are not yet fully understood. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were held with a purposively selected group of 25 PLWH recruited from a triangular HIV clinic in Kerman, Iran. Almost all participants reported experiencing internal(More)