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During foraging, worker bumblebees are challenged by simple to complex tasks. Our goal was to determine whether bumblebees could successfully accomplish tasks that are more complex than those they would naturally encounter. Once the initial training to successfully manipulate a simple, artificial flower was completed, the bees were either challenged with a(More)
Bumblebees move about their environments by flying and by walking. Most experimental studies have addressed navigation during foraging flights, but we presented our experimental bees with the challenge of learning to navigate while walking as they must do in nature within topographically complex spaces containing their nests. We trained bumblebee workers to(More)
We trained worker bumblebees to discriminate arrays of artificial nectaries (one, two, and three microcentrifuge tubes inserted into artificial flowers) from which they could forage in association with their location in a three-compartmental maze. Additionally, we challenged bees to learn to accomplish three different tasks in a fixed sequence during(More)
Animals react to salient stimuli via unconditioned responses, Pavlovian conditioning, conditioned manipulation of objects in simple and complex ways (instrumental/operant learning and tool use) and insight learning. Bumblebees are known to learn to manipulate natural and artificial complex flowers to obtain rewards. Even though those tasks involve(More)
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