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The present study combined extracellular electrophysiology with anterograde and retrograde tracing techniques to determine efferent projections from taste responsive sites within the parabrachial nucleus (PBN). Taste activity was recorded from two distinct regions of the PBN, the waist region consisting of the ventrolateral (VL) and central medial (CM)(More)
The consummatory components of ingestion and rejection, organized in the caudal brainstem, include licking, swallowing, and the oral phase of rejection (gaping). Studies employing electrical-stimulation induced motor activity have localized interneurons controlling these complex motor patterns to the medullary reticular formation (RF), but the(More)
The location, organization and anatomical connections of a central pattern generator (CPG) for licking are discussed. Anatomical and physiological studies suggest a brainstem location distributed within several subdivisions of the medullary reticular formation (RF). The involvement of widespread RF regions is evident from brainstem recording experiments in(More)
Projections to the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) from the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) carry afferent signals from both the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. Although physiological studies suggest the convergence of oral and gastrointestinal sensory signals in the parabrachial nucleus, anatomical studies have emphasized the segregation of these(More)
A limitation of the use of panoramic radiography in implant dentistry has been variations in patient positioning, which can produce dissimilar radiographs and is a serious problem in longitudinal investigations. Previous techniques to standardize panoramic radiographs have been cumbersome and technique sensitive. Bilateral helium-neon lasers were mounted on(More)
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