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BACKGROUND High-throughput evaluation of tissue biomarkers in oncology has been greatly accelerated by the widespread use of tissue microarrays (TMAs) and immunohistochemistry. Although TMAs have the potential to facilitate protein expression profiling on a scale to rival experiments of tumour transcriptomes, the bottleneck and imprecision of manually(More)
Expression of programmed cell death receptor ligand 1 (PDL1) has been scarcely studied in breast cancer. Recently PD1/PDL1-inhibitors have shown promising results in different carcinomas with correlation between PDL1 tumor expression and responses. We retrospectively analyzed PDL1 mRNA expression in 45 breast cancer cell lines and 5,454 breast cancers(More)
Keywords: Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) Multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) Clustering Cluster-head (CH) Energy-efficient networks Load balance factor a b s t r a c t A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is dynamic in nature and is composed of wirelessly connected nodes that perform hop-by-hop routing without the help of any fixed infrastructure.(More)
BACKGROUND Proliferation has emerged as a major prognostic factor in luminal breast cancer. The immunohistochemical (IHC) proliferation marker Ki67 has been most extensively investigated but has not gained widespread clinical acceptance. METHODS We have conducted a head-to-head comparison of a panel of proliferation markers, including Ki67. Our aim was to(More)
Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is the second most frequently occurring histological breast cancer subtype after invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), accounting for around 10% of all breast cancers. The molecular processes that drive the development of ILC are still largely unknown. We have performed a comprehensive genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic(More)
PREDICT ( http://www.predict.nhs.uk ) is a prognostication and treatment benefit tool for early breast cancer (EBC). The aim of this study was to incorporate the prognostic effect of KI67 status in a new version (v3), and compare performance with the Predict model that includes HER2 status (v2). The validation study was based on 1,726 patients with EBC(More)
—This manuscript considers a new architecture to handwritten characters recognition based on simulation of the behavior of one type of artificial neural network, called the Error Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network (EBPANN). We present an overview of our neural network to be optimized and tested on 12 offline isolated Arabic handwritten characters(More)