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OBJECTIVE In this study, we evaluated the involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)/nitric oxide (NO) system on the antidepressant-like effects of paroxetine in the mouse forced swimming test. METHOD Swim sessions were conducted by placing mice in individual glass cylinders filled with water for 6 min. The duration of behavioral immobility(More)
Atorvastatin has neuroprotective effects, and there is some evidence that nitric oxide is involved in atorvastatin effects. In this study, we evaluated whether the nitrergic system is involved in the anticonvulsant effects of chronic atorvastatin administration. Intravenous and intraperitoneal pentylenetetrazol were used to induce seizures in mice. Chronic(More)
Although morphine has an anticonvulsant effect in several animal models of seizures, its potential clinical application in epilepsy may be hindered by its adverse effects like opioid tolerance. The present study evaluated the development of tolerance to the anticonvulsant effect of morphine in a model of clonic seizures induced with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM Several studies have reported that endogenous opioid and cannabinoid systems may be involved in some pathophysiological changes occurring in cholestatic liver disease. It is well known that endogenous opioids and cannabinoids alter the susceptibility of experimental animals to different models of seizure. METHODS The alterations in(More)
Nasal obstruction and consequent mouth breathing have been shown to change the acid-base balance, producing respiratory acidosis. Additionally, there exists a large body of evidence maintaining that acidosis affects the activity of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels, which play a crucial role in the function of the central nervous system (CNS), for(More)
Although several studies have indicated that the opioid receptor agonist morphine exerts biphasic effects on clonic seizure threshold, as yet little is known of the underlying mechanisms in this effect. In the present study, using the specific ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel blocker glibenclamide and the specific K(ATP) channel opener cromakalim, the(More)
Cannabinoid and opioid receptor agonists show functional interactions in a number of their physiological effects. Regarding the seizure-modulating properties of both classes of receptors, the present study examined the possibility of a functional interaction between these receptors. We used acute systemic administration of cannabinoid selective CB(1)(More)
Cannabinoid system plays a pivotal role in the seizure threshold modulation which is mainly mediated through activation of the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor. There is also several evidence of interaction between cannabinoid system and other neurotransmitters including nitric oxide (NO) system. Using model of clonic seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)(More)
Melatonin, the major hormone produced by the pineal gland, has a number of functions in mammals, for example, its function as an anticonvulsant. Agmatine, a biogenic amine formed by decarboxylation of L-arginine by arginine decarboxylase, also has anticonvulsant effects. This study investigated the effect of the interaction of melatonin and agmatine on(More)
Several lines of evidence suggest that cannabinoid compounds are anticonvulsant since they have inhibitory effects at micromolar doses, which are mediated by activated receptors coupling to Gi/o proteins. Surprisingly, both the analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of opioids are enhanced by ultra-low doses (nanomolar to picomolar) of the opioid antagonist(More)