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Tomorrow’s real-time embedded systems will be built upon multicore architectures. This raises two challenges. First, shared resources should be arbitrated in such a way that the WCET of independent threads running concurrently can be computed: in this paper, we assume that timepredictable multicore architectures are available. The second challenge is to(More)
The rise of multi-core architectures has reached the embedded hard real-time domain, in which predictable timing behaviour is the key factor. Although cache memory and even cache coherence mechanisms are provided in most of these systems, when it comes to the execution of timing critical applications, caches are typically disregarded and accesses to shared(More)
Engineers who design hard real-time embedded systems express a need for several times the performance available today while keeping safety as major criterion. A breakthrough in performance is expected by parallelizing hard real-time applications and running them on an embedded multi-core processor, which enables combining the requirements for(More)
Designing time-predictable architectures to support the requirements of hard real-time systems is the goal of several research projects. In this paper we assume that such platforms exist and we focus on the timing analysis of parallel real-time applications. One of the main challenges is to determine how much the delays induced by software constructs such(More)
Applications in industry often have grown and improved over many years. Since their performance demands increase, they also need to benefit from the availability of multi-core processors. However, a reimplementation from scratch and even a restructuring of these industrial applications is very expensive, often due to high certification efforts. Therefore, a(More)
Parallel multi-threaded applications are needed to gain advantage from multi- and many-core processors. Such processors are more frequently considered for embedded hard real-time with defined timing guarantees, too. The static timing analysis, which is one way to calculate the worst-case execution time (WCET) of parallel applications, is complex and(More)
The EC project parMERASA (Multicore Execution of Parallelized Hard Real-Time Applications Supporting Analyzability) investigated timing-analyzable parallel hard real-time applications running on a predictable multicore processor. A pattern-supported parallelization approach was developed to ease sequential to parallel program transformation based on(More)
To reduce complexity while computing an upper bound on the worst-case execution time, static WCET analysis performs over-approximations. This feeds the general feeling that static WCET estimations can be far above the real WCET. This feeling is strengthened when these estimations are compared to measured execution times: generally, it is very unlikely to(More)
Typical constraints on embedded systems include code size limits, upper bounds on energy consumption and hard or soft deadlines. To meet these requirements, it may be necessary to improve the software by applying various kinds of transformations like compiler optimizations, specific mapping of code and data in the available memories, code compression, etc.(More)
Code compression techniques might be useful to meet code size constraints in embedded systems. In the average case, the impact of code compression on the performance is double-edged: on one side, the number of accesses to memory hierarchy is reduced because several instructions are coded in a single word, and this is likely to reduce the execution time; on(More)