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Growing up in poverty is associated with reduced cognitive achievement as measured by standardized intelligence tests, but little is known about the underlying neurocognitive systems responsible for this effect. We administered a battery of tasks designed to tax-specific neurocognitive systems to healthy low and middle SES children screened for medical(More)
Initiation of drug use and other risky behavior in preadolescence is associated with poor developmental outcomes. In this research, we examine models that ascribe the trajectory to (a) weak executive cognitive function (ECF), (b) early manifestation of externalizing problems, or (c) heightened levels of trait impulsivity. We test the explanatory power of(More)
OBJECTIVES Animal studies have clearly demonstrated the effects of in utero cocaine exposure on neural ontogeny, especially in dopamine-rich areas of cerebral cortex; however, less is known about how in utero cocaine exposure affects longitudinal neurocognitive development of the human brain. We used continuous arterial spin-labeling perfusion functional(More)
AIMS (i) To evaluate the role of pre-existing weakness in working memory ability (WM) as a risk factor for early alcohol use as mediated by different forms of impulsivity and (ii) to assess the adverse effects of progressive alcohol use on variations in WM over time. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS A community sample of 358 adolescents [48% males,(More)
A time-efficient method is described for in vivo venous blood T(1) measurement using multiphase inversion-recovery-prepared balanced steady-state free precession imaging. Computer simulations and validation experiments using a flow phantom were carried out to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method for measuring blood T(1) by taking advantage of the(More)
Introduction After my daughter was born people sometimes asked me " Has having a child gotten you interested in brain development? " My answer was " No, not exactly, but having babysitters has. " More specifically, getting to know my daughter's babysitters and becoming close with some of them and their families called my attention to a set of complex social(More)
Studies of brain development suggest that the increase in risk taking observed during adolescence may be due to insufficient prefrontal executive function compared to a more rapidly developing subcortical motivation system. We examined executive function as assessed by working memory ability in a community sample of youth (n = 387, ages 10 to 12 at(More)
A cohort of children of low socioeconomic status, 76 with in utero cocaine exposure and 81 control subjects, was assessed for early language development at 2 1/2 years of age by a masked examiner using the Preschool Language Scale. There were no differences between groups in expressive, receptive, or total language score (all p > or = 0.57). Physicians(More)
Children with gestational cocaine exposure may be at risk of difficulties in attentional functioning and impulse control. We administered the Gordon Diagnostic System and subtests of the Halstead-Reitan Battery to inner-city children with (COC) and without (CON) gestational cocaine exposure at age 10 years. Subtle differences were found between groups, with(More)
The effects of early life experience on later brain structure and function have been studied extensively in animals, yet the relationship between childhood experience and normal brain development in humans remains largely unknown. Using a unique longitudinal data set including ecologically valid in-home measures of early experience during childhood (at age(More)