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Growing up in poverty is associated with reduced cognitive achievement as measured by standardized intelligence tests, but little is known about the underlying neurocognitive systems responsible for this effect. We administered a battery of tasks designed to tax-specific neurocognitive systems to healthy low and middle SES children screened for medical(More)
Initiation of drug use and other risky behavior in preadolescence is associated with poor developmental outcomes. In this research, we examine models that ascribe the trajectory to (a) weak executive cognitive function (ECF), (b) early manifestation of externalizing problems, or (c) heightened levels of trait impulsivity. We test the explanatory power of(More)
OBJECTIVES Animal studies have clearly demonstrated the effects of in utero cocaine exposure on neural ontogeny, especially in dopamine-rich areas of cerebral cortex; however, less is known about how in utero cocaine exposure affects longitudinal neurocognitive development of the human brain. We used continuous arterial spin-labeling perfusion functional(More)
A time-efficient method is described for in vivo venous blood T(1) measurement using multiphase inversion-recovery-prepared balanced steady-state free precession imaging. Computer simulations and validation experiments using a flow phantom were carried out to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method for measuring blood T(1) by taking advantage of the(More)
AIMS (i) To evaluate the role of pre-existing weakness in working memory ability (WM) as a risk factor for early alcohol use as mediated by different forms of impulsivity and (ii) to assess the adverse effects of progressive alcohol use on variations in WM over time. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS A community sample of 358 adolescents [48% males,(More)
Studies of brain development suggest that the increase in risk taking observed during adolescence may be due to insufficient prefrontal executive function compared to a more rapidly developing subcortical motivation system. We examined executive function as assessed by working memory ability in a community sample of youth (n = 387, ages 10 to 12 at(More)
A cohort of children of low socioeconomic status, 76 with in utero cocaine exposure and 81 control subjects, was assessed for early language development at 2 1/2 years of age by a masked examiner using the Preschool Language Scale. There were no differences between groups in expressive, receptive, or total language score (all p > or = 0.57). Physicians(More)
Children with gestational cocaine exposure may be at risk of difficulties in attentional functioning and impulse control. We administered the Gordon Diagnostic System and subtests of the Halstead-Reitan Battery to inner-city children with (COC) and without (CON) gestational cocaine exposure at age 10 years. Subtle differences were found between groups, with(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the longitudinal repeatability and accuracy of cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements by using pseudo-continuous arterial spin-labeled (pCASL) perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in typically developing children. MATERIALS AND METHODS Institutional review board approval with HIPAA compliance and informed consent were obtained.(More)
Four very low birth weight, very premature infants were monitored during a 12 degrees postural elevation using diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to measure microvascular cerebral blood flow (CBF) and transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) to measure macrovascular blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery. DCS data correlated significantly with(More)