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Growing up in poverty is associated with reduced cognitive achievement as measured by standardized intelligence tests, but little is known about the underlying neurocognitive systems responsible for this effect. We administered a battery of tasks designed to tax-specific neurocognitive systems to healthy low and middle SES children screened for medical(More)
A multivariate classification approach has been presented to examine the brain abnormalities, i.e., due to prenatal cocaine exposure, using both structural and functional brain images. First, a regional statistical feature extraction scheme was adopted to capture discriminative features from voxel-wise morphometric and functional representations of brain(More)
This prospective, blinded study evaluates the effect of in utero cocaine exposure on outcome of nonasphyxiated, term and near-term children born to women of low socioeconomic status. Two hundred nineteen children (101 cocaine-exposed and 118 control) with extensive natal evaluations are evaluated at 6-month intervals. We report here growth, performance on(More)
Initiation of drug use and other risky behavior in preadolescence is associated with poor developmental outcomes. In this research, we examine models that ascribe the trajectory to (a) weak executive cognitive function (ECF), (b) early manifestation of externalizing problems, or (c) heightened levels of trait impulsivity. We test the explanatory power of(More)
The effects of environmental stimulation and parental nurturance on brain development have been studied extensively in animals. Much less is known about the relations between childhood experience and cognitive development in humans. Using a longitudinally collected data set with ecologically valid in-home measures of childhood experience and later(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the longitudinal repeatability and accuracy of cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements by using pseudo-continuous arterial spin-labeled (pCASL) perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in typically developing children. MATERIALS AND METHODS Institutional review board approval with HIPAA compliance and informed consent were obtained.(More)
AIMS (i) To evaluate the role of pre-existing weakness in working memory ability (WM) as a risk factor for early alcohol use as mediated by different forms of impulsivity and (ii) to assess the adverse effects of progressive alcohol use on variations in WM over time. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS A community sample of 358 adolescents [48% males,(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of gestational cocaine exposure on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). STUDY DESIGN Using an n-back task, we obtained fMRI with a 3T Siemens scanner on 49 adolescents, 25 who were exposed to cocaine and 24 who were not exposed. The primary outcome was PFC activation during task(More)
The effects of early life experience on later brain structure and function have been studied extensively in animals, yet the relationship between childhood experience and normal brain development in humans remains largely unknown. Using a unique longitudinal data set including ecologically valid in-home measures of early experience during childhood (at age(More)
We assess the effects of in utero cocaine and polysubstance exposure on the adolescent caudate nucleus through high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Cocaine exposure may compromise the developing brain through disruption of neural ontogeny in dopaminergic systems, effects secondary to fetal hypoxemia, or altered cerebrovascular reactivity. Cocaine(More)