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Initiation of drug use and other risky behavior in preadolescence is associated with poor developmental outcomes. In this research, we examine models that ascribe the trajectory to (a) weak executive cognitive function (ECF), (b) early manifestation of externalizing problems, or (c) heightened levels of trait impulsivity. We test the explanatory power of(More)
Growing up in poverty is associated with reduced cognitive achievement as measured by standardized intelligence tests, but little is known about the underlying neurocognitive systems responsible for this effect. We administered a battery of tasks designed to tax-specific neurocognitive systems to healthy low and middle SES children screened for medical(More)
OBJECTIVES Animal studies have clearly demonstrated the effects of in utero cocaine exposure on neural ontogeny, especially in dopamine-rich areas of cerebral cortex; however, less is known about how in utero cocaine exposure affects longitudinal neurocognitive development of the human brain. We used continuous arterial spin-labeling perfusion functional(More)
The effects of environmental stimulation and parental nurturance on brain development have been studied extensively in animals. Much less is known about the relations between childhood experience and cognitive development in humans. Using a longitudinally collected data set with ecologically valid in-home measures of childhood experience and later(More)
Four very low birth weight, very premature infants were monitored during a 12 • postural elevation using diffuse correlation spec-troscopy (DCS) to measure microvascular cerebral blood flow (CBF) and transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) to measure macrovascular blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery. DCS data correlated significantly with peak(More)
A multivariate classification approach has been presented to examine the brain abnormalities, i.e., due to prenatal cocaine exposure, using both structural and functional brain images. First, a regional statistical feature extraction scheme was adopted to capture discriminative features from voxel-wise morphometric and functional representations of brain(More)
The effects of early life experience on later brain structure and function have been studied extensively in animals, yet the relationship between childhood experience and normal brain development in humans remains largely unknown. Using a unique longitudinal data set including ecologically valid in-home measures of early experience during childhood (at age(More)
We assess the effects of in utero cocaine and polysubstance exposure on the adolescent caudate nucleus through high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Cocaine exposure may compromise the developing brain through disruption of neural ontogeny in dopaminergic systems, effects secondary to fetal hypoxemia, or altered cerebrovascular reactivity. Cocaine(More)
Preclinical studies of gestational cocaine exposure (GCE) show evidence of changes in brain function at the anatomical, physiological, and behavioral levels, to include effects on developing dopaminergic systems. In contrast, human studies have produced less consistent results, with most showing small effects or no effects on developmental outcomes.(More)
A number of neurological diseases are associated with structural and functional alterations in the brain. This paper presents a method of using both structural and functional MR images for brain disease diagnosis, by machine learning and high-dimensional template warping. First, a high-dimensional template warping technique is used to compute morphological(More)