Halina Ewa Witkowska

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Hemoglobin switching is a complex process by which distinct globin chains are produced during stages of development. In an effort to characterize the process of hemoglobin switching in the zebrafish model system, we have isolated and characterized several embryonic globin genes. The embryonic and adult globin genes are found in clusters in a head-to-head(More)
APOBEC3G (A3G) and related deoxycytidine deaminases are potent intrinsic antiretroviral factors. A3G is expressed either as an enzymatically active low-molecular-mass (LMM) form or as an enzymatically inactive high-molecular-mass (HMM) ribonucleoprotein complex. Resting CD4 T cells exclusively express LMM A3G, where it functions as a powerful postentry(More)
To create mice expressing exclusively human sickle hemoglobin (HbS), transgenic mice expressing human alpha-, gamma-, and betaS-globin were generated and bred with knockout mice that had deletions of the murine alpha- and beta-globin genes. These sickle cell mice have the major features (irreversibly sickled red cells, anemia, multiorgan pathology) found in(More)
Developmental switching of hemoglobins (Hbs) occurs in most vertebrates, yet the cellular and molecular basis for this process remains elusive. The zebrafish is a new genetic and developmental system that can be used to study embryogenesis, and mutants with a variety of defects in hematopoiesis have recently been derived. To initiate our studies on Hb(More)
Semen serves as a vehicle for HIV and promotes sexual transmission of the virus, which accounts for the majority of new HIV cases. The major component of semen is the coagulum, a viscous structure composed predominantly of spermatozoa and semenogelin proteins. Due to the activity of the semen protease PSA, the coagulum is liquefied and semenogelins are(More)
Haemoglobin H (Hb H) disease is caused by deletion or inactivation of three alpha-globin genes, leaving only one intact and active alpha-globin gene. People with Hb H disease usually have moderate anaemia, but are generally thought to be asymptomatic. Some Hb H disease patients require transfusions, and there are reports of fetuses with Hb H disease who(More)
Changes in salivary composition correlate with disease susceptibility, disease state, or both. However, use of saliva for diagnostic purposes is complicated by the gland-specific effects of circadian rhythm or diurnal variation. We recently characterized a suite of peptides in the < or =10-kDa fraction of human parotid saliva that included many novel(More)
Many human anaemias are caused by defects in haemoglobin synthesis. The zebrafish mutant sauternes (sau) has a microcytic, hypochromic anaemia, suggesting that haemoglobin production is perturbed. During embryogenesis, sau mutants have delayed erythroid maturation and abnormal globin gene expression. Using positional cloning techniques, we show that sau(More)
The kinase Akt mediates signals from growth factor receptors for increased cell proliferation, survival, and migration, which contribute to the positive effects of Akt in cancer progression. Substrates are generally inhibited when phosphorylated by Akt; however, we show phosphorylation of the plasma membrane sodium-hydrogen exchanger NHE1 by Akt increases(More)
Saliva is a body fluid with important functions in oral and general health. A consortium of three research groups catalogued the proteins in human saliva collected as the ductal secretions: 1166 identifications--914 in parotid and 917 in submandibular/sublingual saliva--were made. The results showed that a high proportion of proteins that are found in(More)