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The removal of bilateral olfactory bulbs (OBs) can result in serious behavioral, neurochemical, neuroendocrine, and neuroimmune alterations in depressed patients. However, there is little information on how olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) leads to depression. Habenular nuclei and their connections are important in the regulation of psychomotor and psychosocial(More)
Agomelatine (AG) is an agonist of melatonin receptors and an antagonist of the 5-HT2C-receptor subtype. The chronobiotic properties of AG are of significant interest due to the disorganization of internal rhythms, which might play a role in the pathophysiology of depression. The present study was designed to assess the effects of the antidepressant-like(More)
Synthetic cannabinoids (SC), cannabinoid 1 and cannabinoid 2 receptors agonists, are the psychoactive substances. SC was originally produced to treat medical conditions. Compared to other narcotics, SC is easier to obtain, cheap, and highly potent and has a long half-life. In addition, routine analysis does not detect SC, which has led to widespread use. A(More)
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome characterized by psychological and somatic symptoms commencing in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and concludes with menstrual bleeding. PMDD affects 3-8 % of premenopausal women and represents a significant public health problem especially in young women. Decreased(More)
OBJECTIVE We hypothesized that comparison of the serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels between women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and women without PMDD in the luteal and follicular phases of their menstrual cycles would reflect the altered neuromodulator responses that compensate the underlying pathogenesis in PMDD. METHOD(More)
There are many biological rhythms with various time oscillations regulating biological functions in living organisms, mammalians, and humans. Biological rhythms such as circadian, ultradian, and infradian or with longer cycles are independent biological organizations rather than dependent to the external stimulus. Although there is a sustained biological(More)
Congenital cutis laxa is a rare, clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited disorders. It is characterized by degenerative changes in elastic fibres and manifests with skin laxity. Here we presented a six-month old boy with congenital cutis laxa associated with growth retardation. We reveal ultrastructural findings and discussed the(More)
Neurological and/or psychiatric symptoms might be detected due to damage of frontal lobes as detected in damages of many brain regions. Frontal lobe syndrome (FLS) occurs as a result of damage in prefrontal region due to various causes. Symptoms due to prefrontal region damage, varies according to the size and location of the lesion. In most of the cases;(More)