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Our research begins with the idea that Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) is an increasingly common Internet phenomenon and is capable of silencing Internet speech, usually for a brief interval but occasionally for longer. We explore the specific phenomenon of DDoS attacks on independent media and human rights organizations, seeking to understand the(More)
NG-PON2 is the industry's first multiple wavelength (per direction), standards-based passive optical network system that is compatible with power-split optical distribution networks. The physical media dependent layer recommendation (ITU-T G.989.2) is the result of over three years of collaborative work by members of the FSAN and ITU-T Study Group 15,(More)
This is the second of a two-part paper intended to provide technical insight and rationales behind the recently approved ITU-T G.989.2 Recommendation: the physical media dependent layer specification of the 40-gigabit-capable passive optical networks (NG-PON2). While Part 1 of the paper discusses topics related to the optical link design, Part 2 focuses on(More)
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