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BACKGROUND Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) may affect brain regions outside the temporal lobe, causing impaired neocortical function during seizures. METHODS The authors selected 11 consecutive patients with mesial TLE and hippocampal sclerosis who underwent intracranial EEG monitoring and had no seizures during a follow-up period of at least 1 year after(More)
Absence seizures are 5-10 s episodes of impaired consciousness accompanied by 3-4 Hz generalized spike-and-wave discharge on electroencephalography (EEG). The time course of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) changes in absence seizures in relation to EEG and behavior is not known. We acquired simultaneous EEG-fMRI in 88 typical childhood absence(More)
Due to the involvement of cortical neurons in spike-wave discharge (SWD) initiation, and the contribution of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) to neuronal firing, we examined alterations in the expression of VGSC mRNA and protein in cortical neurons in the WAG/Rij absence epileptic rat. WAG/Rij rats were compared to age-matched Wistar control rats at 2,(More)
Generalized tonic-clonic seizures are among the most dramatic physiological events in the nervous system. The brain regions involved during partial seizures with secondary generalization have not been thoroughly investigated in humans. We used single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to image cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in 59 secondarily(More)
Functional MRI (fMRI) is widely assumed to measure neuronal activity, but no satisfactory mechanism for this linkage has been identified. Here we derived the changes in the energetic component from the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal and related it to changes in the neuronal spiking frequency in the activated voxels. Extracellular(More)
Temporal lobe seizures are accompanied by complex behavioral phenomena including loss of consciousness, dystonic movements and neuroendocrine changes. These phenomena may arise from extended neural networks beyond the temporal lobe. To investigate this, we imaged cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes during human temporal lobe seizures with single photon(More)
PURPOSE Central nervous system plasticity is essential for normal function, but can also reinforce abnormal network behavior, leading to epilepsy and other disorders. The role of altered ion channel expression in abnormal plasticity has not been thoroughly investigated. Nav1.6 is the most abundantly expressed sodium channel in the nervous system. Because of(More)
Impaired consciousness requires altered cortical function. This can occur either directly from disorders that impair widespread bilateral regions of the cortex or indirectly through effects on subcortical arousal systems. It has therefore long been puzzling why focal temporal lobe seizures so often impair consciousness. Early work suggested that altered(More)
PURPOSE The goal of neuroimaging in epilepsy is to localize the region of seizure onset. Single-photon emission computed tomography with tracer injection during seizures (ictal SPECT) is a promising tool for localizing seizures. However, much uncertainty exists about how to interpret late injections, or injections done after seizure end (postictal SPECT). A(More)