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Functional MRI (fMRI) is widely assumed to measure neuronal activity, but no satisfactory mechanism for this linkage has been identified. Here we derived the changes in the energetic component from the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal and related it to changes in the neuronal spiking frequency in the activated voxels. Extracellular(More)
Most epilepsy genes encode ion channels, but the LGI1 gene responsible for autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features produces a secreted protein. LGI1 is suggested to regulate PSD-95 via ADAM22. However, no unbiased screen of LGI1 action has been conducted. Here, we searched for brain genes supporting high affinity LGI-1 binding. ADAM23 was(More)
Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is widely used in neuroscience to study brain activity. However, BOLD fMRI does not measure neuronal activity directly but depends on cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)) consumption. Using fMRI, CBV, CBF,(More)
Model systems are needed for the scientific investigation of consciousness. A good model system should include variable states of consciousness, allowing the relationship between brain activity and consciousness to be investigated. Examples include sleep, anesthesia, focal brain lesions, development, evolution, and epilepsy. One advantage of epilepsy is(More)
Due to the involvement of cortical neurons in spike-wave discharge (SWD) initiation, and the contribution of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) to neuronal firing, we examined alterations in the expression of VGSC mRNA and protein in cortical neurons in the WAG/Rij absence epileptic rat. WAG/Rij rats were compared to age-matched Wistar control rats at 2,(More)
Layer-specific neurophysiologic, hemodynamic, and metabolic measurements are needed to interpret high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in the cerebral cortex. We examined how neurovascular and neurometabolic couplings vary vertically in the rat's somatosensory cortex. During sensory stimulation we measured dynamic layer-specific(More)
Epileptic seizures cause dynamic, reversible changes in brain function and are often associated with loss of consciousness. Of all seizure types, absence seizures lead to the most selective deficits in consciousness, with relatively little motor or other manifestations. Impaired consciousness in absence seizures is not monolithic, but varies in severity(More)
Why do complex-partial seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) cause a loss of consciousness? Abnormal function of the medial temporal lobe is expected to cause memory loss, but it is unclear why profoundly impaired consciousness is so common in temporal lobe seizures. Recent exciting advances in behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging(More)
Absence seizures are 5-10 s episodes of impaired consciousness accompanied by 3-4 Hz generalized spike-and-wave discharge on electroencephalography (EEG). The time course of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) changes in absence seizures in relation to EEG and behavior is not known. We acquired simultaneous EEG-fMRI in 88 typical childhood absence(More)