Hal Blumenfeld

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Spike-wave seizures are often considered a relatively "pure" form of epilepsy, with a uniform defect present in all patients and involvement of the whole brain homogeneously. Here, we present evidence against these common misconceptions. Rather than a uniform disorder, spike-wave rhythms arise from the normal inherent network properties of brain excitatory(More)
Functional MRI (fMRI) is widely assumed to measure neuronal activity, but no satisfactory mechanism for this linkage has been identified. Here we derived the changes in the energetic component from the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal and related it to changes in the neuronal spiking frequency in the activated voxels. Extracellular(More)
Absence seizures are 5-10 s episodes of impaired consciousness accompanied by 3-4 Hz generalized spike-and-wave discharge on electroencephalography (EEG). The time course of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) changes in absence seizures in relation to EEG and behavior is not known. We acquired simultaneous EEG-fMRI in 88 typical childhood absence(More)
BACKGROUND Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) may affect brain regions outside the temporal lobe, causing impaired neocortical function during seizures. METHODS The authors selected 11 consecutive patients with mesial TLE and hippocampal sclerosis who underwent intracranial EEG monitoring and had no seizures during a follow-up period of at least 1 year after(More)
Absence seizures (3-4 Hz) and sleep spindles (6-14 Hz) occur mostly during slow-wave sleep and have been hypothesized to involve the same corticothalamic network. However, the mechanism by which this network transforms from one form of activity to the other is not well understood. Here we examine this question using ferret lateral geniculate nucleus slices(More)
Temporal lobe seizures are accompanied by complex behavioral phenomena including loss of consciousness, dystonic movements and neuroendocrine changes. These phenomena may arise from extended neural networks beyond the temporal lobe. To investigate this, we imaged cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes during human temporal lobe seizures with single photon(More)
Generalized tonic-clonic seizures are among the most dramatic physiological events in the nervous system. The brain regions involved during partial seizures with secondary generalization have not been thoroughly investigated in humans. We used single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to image cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in 59 secondarily(More)
Model systems are needed for the scientific investigation of consciousness. A good model system should include variable states of consciousness, allowing the relationship between brain activity and consciousness to be investigated. Examples include sleep, anesthesia, focal brain lesions, development, evolution, and epilepsy. One advantage of epilepsy is(More)
Layer-specific neurophysiologic, hemodynamic, and metabolic measurements are needed to interpret high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in the cerebral cortex. We examined how neurovascular and neurometabolic couplings vary vertically in the rat's somatosensory cortex. During sensory stimulation we measured dynamic layer-specific(More)
Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is widely used in neuroscience to study brain activity. However, BOLD fMRI does not measure neuronal activity directly but depends on cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)) consumption. Using fMRI, CBV, CBF,(More)