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Absence seizures are 5-10 s episodes of impaired consciousness accompanied by 3-4 Hz generalized spike-and-wave discharge on electroencephalography (EEG). The time course of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) changes in absence seizures in relation to EEG and behavior is not known. We acquired simultaneous EEG-fMRI in 88 typical childhood absence(More)
Due to the involvement of cortical neurons in spike-wave discharge (SWD) initiation, and the contribution of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) to neuronal firing, we examined alterations in the expression of VGSC mRNA and protein in cortical neurons in the WAG/Rij absence epileptic rat. WAG/Rij rats were compared to age-matched Wistar control rats at 2,(More)
Generalized tonic-clonic seizures are among the most dramatic physiological events in the nervous system. The brain regions involved during partial seizures with secondary generalization have not been thoroughly investigated in humans. We used single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to image cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in 59 secondarily(More)
Functional MRI (fMRI) is widely assumed to measure neuronal activity, but no satisfactory mechanism for this linkage has been identified. Here we derived the changes in the energetic component from the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal and related it to changes in the neuronal spiking frequency in the activated voxels. Extracellular(More)
PURPOSE Central nervous system plasticity is essential for normal function, but can also reinforce abnormal network behavior, leading to epilepsy and other disorders. The role of altered ion channel expression in abnormal plasticity has not been thoroughly investigated. Nav1.6 is the most abundantly expressed sodium channel in the nervous system. Because of(More)
Most epilepsy genes encode ion channels, but the LGI1 gene responsible for autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features produces a secreted protein. LGI1 is suggested to regulate PSD-95 via ADAM22. However, no unbiased screen of LGI1 action has been conducted. Here, we searched for brain genes supporting high affinity LGI-1 binding. ADAM23 was(More)
PURPOSE The goal of neuroimaging in epilepsy is to localize the region of seizure onset. Single-photon emission computed tomography with tracer injection during seizures (ictal SPECT) is a promising tool for localizing seizures. However, much uncertainty exists about how to interpret late injections, or injections done after seizure end (postictal SPECT). A(More)
BACKGROUND Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) may affect brain regions outside the temporal lobe, causing impaired neocortical function during seizures. METHODS The authors selected 11 consecutive patients with mesial TLE and hippocampal sclerosis who underwent intracranial EEG monitoring and had no seizures during a follow-up period of at least 1 year after(More)
Modulation of transmitter release underlies several forms of learning-related synaptic plasticity, including presynaptic facilitation and long-term potentiation. Although the presynaptic terminals of most neurons are not accessible for direct study, it has often been possible to correlate changes in calcium influx in the cell body, owing to modulation of K+(More)