Hakimullah Hakim

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Scallop shell powder produced by calcination process - the average diameter of the powder particles being 20 µm (SSP) - was further ground into nano-sized particles, with average diameter of 500 nm, here designated CaO-Nano. Solution of CaO-Nano could inactivate avian influenza virus within 5 sec, whereas the solution of SSP could not even after 1 hr(More)
Calcinated egg shell (Egg-CaO), of which the main component is calcium oxide, was evaluated in the forms of powder and aqueous solutions for their efficacies as disinfectants against avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), Salmonella Infantis and Escherichia coli. Egg-CaO powder inactivated these(More)
The efficacy and stability of scallop shell powder (SSP) were investigated, in terms of its capacity to inactivate avian influenza virus (AIV), and compared with slaked lime (SL). An environmental simulation was conducted by emulating sunlight and wet-dry conditions. The powders were collected at consecutive 2-week intervals under sunlight and upon every(More)
The capacity of slightly acidic hypochlorous acid water (SAHW), in both liquid and spray form, to inactivate bacteria was evaluated as a potential candidate for biosecurity enhancement in poultry production. SAHW (containing 50 or 100 ppm chlorine, pH 6) was able to inactivate Escherichia coli and Salmonella Infantis in liquid to below detectable levels(More)
Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) solutions were evaluated for their virucidal ability against a low pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV), H7N1. HOCl solutions containing 50, 100 and 200 ppm chlorine (pH 6) or their sprayed solutions (harvested in dishes placed at 1 or 30 cm distance between the spray nozzle and dish) were mixed with the virus with or without(More)
Existence of bioaerosol contaminants in farms and outbreaks of some infectious organisms with the ability of transmission by air increase the need for enhancement of biosecurity, especially for the application of aerosol disinfectants. Here we selected slightly acidic hypochlorous acid water (SAHW) as a candidate and evaluated its virucidal efficacy toward(More)
Bioceramic powder (BCX), at pH 13.0, derived from chicken feces, was evaluated for its efficacy to inactivate virus and inhibit virus horizontal transmission by fecal-oral route, using infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine strain D78 as a challenge virus. Three 1-week-old SPF chicks were vaccinated per os and used as seeder birds. Six hours later,(More)
An alkaline agent, namely food additive grade calcium hydroxide (FdCa (OH)2) in the powder form, was evaluated for its bactericidal efficacies in chicken feces at pH 13. The point for this evaluation was neutralization of the alkaline agent's pH at the time of bacterial recovery, since otherwise the results are substantially misleading. Without(More)
An alkaline agent, namely food additive grade calcium hydroxide (FdCa(OH)2) in solution at 0.17%, was evaluated for its bactericidal efficacies in chiller water with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) at a concentration of 200 ppm total residual chlorine. Without organic material presence, NaOCl could inactivate Salmonella Infantis and Escherichia coli within 5(More)
Alkaline agents are well-known for their disinfection capacities against pathogens even at the presence of organic materials, but the durability of their bactericidal efficacies under field conditions is unknown. Therefore, within the present study, two alkaline agents, namely bioceramic (BCX) derived from chicken feces and food additive grade Ca(OH)2(More)