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For modern evidence-based medicine, a well thought-out risk scoring system for predicting the occurrence of a clinical event plays an important role in selecting prevention and treatment strategies. Such an index system is often established based on the subject's 'baseline' genetic or clinical markers via a working parametric or semi-parametric model. To(More)
Purpose Hereditary factors play an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, yet the prevalence of germline cancer susceptibility gene mutations in patients with CRC unselected for high-risk features (eg, early age at diagnosis, personal/family history of cancer or polyps, tumor microsatellite instability [MSI], mismatch repair [MMR] deficiency) is(More)
BACKGROUND Systematic reporting of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation is recommended for detection of chronic kidney disease and prediction of cardiovascular (CV) risk. The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation is a newly developed and validated(More)
BACKGROUND More strokes were observed in the Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events With Aranesp Therapy (TREAT) among patients assigned to darbepoetin alfa. We sought to identify baseline characteristics and postrandomization factors that might explain this association. METHODS AND RESULTS A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify(More)
For modern evidence-based medicine, decisions on disease prevention or management strategies are often guided by a risk index system. For each individual, the system uses his/her baseline information to estimate the risk of experiencing a future disease-related clinical event. Such a risk scoring scheme is usually derived from an overly simplified(More)
BACKGROUND In randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus, mortality rates vary substantially. We sought to examine the inclusion and exclusion criteria of these RCTs to explore relationships with mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS MEDLINE database was searched from August 1980 through March 2011. Selection criterion included(More)
Zosuquidar, which modulates P-glycoprotein (P-gp) with minimal delay of anthracycline clearance, may reverse P-gp-mediated resistance in acute myeloid leukemia without increased toxicity. A total of 449 adults older than 60 years with acute myeloid leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome enrolled in a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial(More)
BACKGROUND Non–placebo-controlled trials of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) comparing lower and higher hemoglobin targets in patients with chronic kidney disease indicate that targeting of a lower hemoglobin range may avoid ESA-associated risks. However, target-based strategies are confounded by each patient's individual hematopoietic response. (More)
BACKGROUND Activated monocytes/macrophages play a role in severe forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), but little is known about the mechanisms driving milder forms that are prevalent despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). To examine relationships of monocyte activation markers to HAND of varying severity, we compared plasma(More)
BACKGROUND In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), as in other populations, elevations in cardiac biomarker levels predict increased risk of cardiovascular events. We examined the value of troponin T (TnT) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) in assessing the risk of developing end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in diabetic patients(More)