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Retinoic acid (RA) produced by intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) imprints gut-homing specificity on lymphocytes and enhances Foxp3(+) regulatory T-cell differentiation. The expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 1A in these DCs is essential for the RA production. However, it remains unclear how the steady-state ALDH1A expression is induced under(More)
Immunoglobulin-A has an irreplaceable role in the mucosal defence against infectious microbes. In human and mouse, IgA-producing plasma cells comprise approximately 20% of total plasma cells of peripheral lymphoid tissues, whereas more than 80% of plasma cells produce IgA in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT). One of the most biologically important(More)
Normal intestinal mucosa contains abundant immunoglobulin A (IgA)-secreting cells, which are generated from B cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). We show that dendritic cells (DC) from GALT induce T cell-independent expression of IgA and gut-homing receptors on B cells. GALT-DC-derived retinoic acid (RA) alone conferred gut tropism but could(More)
The steroidal moulting hormones (ecdysteroids) mediate developmental transitions in insects, and their regulation is mainly controlled by the production and inactivation of these steroid hormones at the appropriate developmental times. One route of metabolism of ecdysteroids in insects involves EO (ecdysone oxidase)-catalysed conversion into(More)
BACKGROUND The vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), plays important roles in the regulation of lymphocyte properties. Dendritic cells in gut-related lymphoid organs can produce RA, thereby imprinting gut-homing specificity on T cells and enhancing transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-dependent induction of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells upon antigen(More)
Retinoic acid (RA)-producing dendritic cells (DCs) play critical roles in gut immunity. Retinal dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2) encoded by Aldh1a2 is a key enzyme for generating RA in DCs. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) potently induces RALDH2 expression in DCs in an RA-dependent manner, and RA alone weakly induces the expression.(More)
Retinoic acid (RA)-producing CD103(+) mature dendritic cells (DCs) in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) play crucial roles in gut immunity. GM-CSF and RA contribute to the expression of the RA-producing enzyme ALDH1A2. However, additional signals appeared to be required for inducing ALDH1A2(high) mature DCs from immature DCs. We found here that TLR ligands (Ls)(More)
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