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Retinoic acid (RA) produced by intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) imprints gut-homing specificity on lymphocytes and enhances Foxp3(+) regulatory T-cell differentiation. The expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 1A in these DCs is essential for the RA production. However, it remains unclear how the steady-state ALDH1A expression is induced under(More)
Immunoglobulin-A has an irreplaceable role in the mucosal defence against infectious microbes. In human and mouse, IgA-producing plasma cells comprise approximately 20% of total plasma cells of peripheral lymphoid tissues, whereas more than 80% of plasma cells produce IgA in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT). One of the most biologically important(More)
Normal intestinal mucosa contains abundant immunoglobulin A (IgA)-secreting cells, which are generated from B cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). We show that dendritic cells (DC) from GALT induce T cell-independent expression of IgA and gut-homing receptors on B cells. GALT-DC-derived retinoic acid (RA) alone conferred gut tropism but could(More)
BACKGROUND The vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), plays important roles in the regulation of lymphocyte properties. Dendritic cells in gut-related lymphoid organs can produce RA, thereby imprinting gut-homing specificity on T cells and enhancing transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-dependent induction of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells upon antigen(More)
Retinoic acid (RA)-producing dendritic cells (DCs) play critical roles in gut immunity. Retinal dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2) encoded by Aldh1a2 is a key enzyme for generating RA in DCs. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) potently induces RALDH2 expression in DCs in an RA-dependent manner, and RA alone weakly induces the expression.(More)
This report describes a case showing histologic features of acute cholangitis with an over-the-counter drug. A 48-year-old woman was diagnosed with general malaise and progressive jaundice. A thorough review of her medical history revealed that the patient had taken an over-the-counter drug, Pabron Gold(®), which she had used previously, that may have(More)
A 63-year-old woman, who presented with severe jaundice and elevated serum conjugated bilirubin level, denied alcohol and drug use and showed no evidence of viral hepatitis. Based on clinical and laboratory features, she was diagnosed with autoimmune hepatitis with primary biliary cirrhosis. Hematological and immunochemical assays, radiographic imaging,(More)
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