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Immunoglobulin-A has an irreplaceable role in the mucosal defence against infectious microbes. In human and mouse, IgA-producing plasma cells comprise approximately 20% of total plasma cells of peripheral lymphoid tissues, whereas more than 80% of plasma cells produce IgA in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT). One of the most biologically important(More)
Normal intestinal mucosa contains abundant immunoglobulin A (IgA)-secreting cells, which are generated from B cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). We show that dendritic cells (DC) from GALT induce T cell-independent expression of IgA and gut-homing receptors on B cells. GALT-DC-derived retinoic acid (RA) alone conferred gut tropism but could(More)
Retinoic acid (RA) produced by intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) imprints gut-homing specificity on lymphocytes and enhances Foxp3(+) regulatory T-cell differentiation. The expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 1A in these DCs is essential for the RA production. However, it remains unclear how the steady-state ALDH1A expression is induced under(More)
The active vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) imprints gut-homing specificity on lymphocytes upon activation by inducing the expression of α4β7 integrin and CCR9. RA receptor (RAR) activation is essential for their expression, whereas retinoid X receptor (RXR) activation is not essential for α4β7 expression. However, it remains unclear whether RXR(More)
BACKGROUND The vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), plays important roles in the regulation of lymphocyte properties. Dendritic cells in gut-related lymphoid organs can produce RA, thereby imprinting gut-homing specificity on T cells and enhancing transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-dependent induction of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells upon antigen(More)
Retinoic acid (RA) enhances TGF-β-dependent differentiation of Foxp3(+) inducible regulatory T cells (iTregs) and inhibits Th17 differentiation by binding to the RA receptor (RAR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) heterodimer. The major physiologic RA, all-trans-RA, binds to RAR but not to RXR at physiological concentrations. It remained unclear whether(More)
Retinoic acid (RA)-producing dendritic cells (DCs) play critical roles in gut immunity. Retinal dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2) encoded by Aldh1a2 is a key enzyme for generating RA in DCs. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) potently induces RALDH2 expression in DCs in an RA-dependent manner, and RA alone weakly induces the expression.(More)
The vitamin A (VA) metabolite retinoic acid (RA) affects the properties of T cells and dendritic cells (DCs). In VA-deficient mice, we observed that mesenteric lymph node (MLN)-DCs induce a distinct inflammatory T helper type 2 (Th2)-cell subset that particularly produces high levels of interleukin (IL)-13 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). This subset(More)
A 2-year-old girl presented with vomiting and diarrhea 7 hours after eating a large quantity of ginkgo seeds. She exhibited an afebrile convulsion 9 hours after ingestion. The serum concentration of 4-metoxypyridoxine was as high as 360 ng/mL. Although reported cases of ginkgo seed poisoning usually involve children who exhibit repetitive seizures that can(More)