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Like all known LIM class homeobox genes, Xlim-1 encodes a protein with two tandemly repeated cysteine-rich LIM domains upstream of the homeodomain. In Xenopus laevis, Xlim-1 is specifically expressed in the Spemann organizer, whose major functions include neural induction and dorsalization of ventral mesoderm. From RNA injection experiments we conclude here(More)
The purpose of the present investigation was to replicate and extend the International Affective Picture System norms (Ito, Cacioppo, & Lang, 1998; Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 1999). These norms were developed to provide researchers with photographic slides that varied in emotional evocation, especially arousal and valence. In addition to collecting rating(More)
ABSTRACT Host-specific toxins are produced by three pathotypes of Alternaria alternata: AM-toxin, which affects apple; AK-toxin, which affects Japanese pear; and AAL-toxin, which affects tomato. Each toxin has a role in pathogenesis. To facilitate molecular genetic analysis of toxin production, isolation of toxin-deficient mutants utilizing ectopic(More)
Afternaria afternata apple pathotype causes Alternaria blotch of susceptible apple cultivars through the production of a cyclic peptide host-specific toxin, AM-toxin. PCR (polymerase chain reaction), with primers designed to conserved domains of peptide synthetase genes, amplified several products from A. alternata apple pathotype that showed high(More)
The LIM class homeobox gene Xlim-1 is expressed in Xenopus embryos in the lineages leading to (i) the notochord, (ii) the pronephros, and (iii) certain cells of the central nervous system (CNS). In its first expression phase, Xlim-1 mRNA arises in the Spemann organizer region, accumulates in prechordal mesoderm and notochord during gastrulation, and decays(More)
BACKGROUND A mouse receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), mRor2, which belongs to the Ror-family of RTKs consisting of at least two structurally related members, is primarily expressed in the heart and nervous system during mouse development. To elucidate the function of mRor2, we generated mice with a mutated mRor2 locus. RESULTS Mice with a homozygous mutation(More)
Excessive oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathology and complications of diabetes, which leads to myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. The present study was designed to examine whether resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic compound present in red wine has a direct cardioprotective effect on diabetic myocardium.(More)
We recently demonstrated that ischemic preconditioning (IPC) induced by cyclic episodes of short durations of ischemia and reperfusion potentiates a signal transduction cascade involving protein tyrosine kinases and MAP kinases. A rapid activation of janus kinase (JAK) and several signal transducers and activators of the transcription (STATs) including(More)
The Rac1, a member of the Rho family proteins, regulates actin organization of cytoskeleton and cell adhesion. We used genetic analysis to elucidate the role of Rac1 in mouse embryonic development. The rac1 deficient embryos showed numerous cell deaths in the space between the embryonic ectoderm and endoderm at the primitive streak stage. Investigation of(More)
BACKGROUND Drosophila neurospecific receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), Dror and Dnrk, as well as Ror1 and Ror2 RTKs, isolated from human neuroblastoma, have been identified as a structurally related novel family of RTKs (Ror-family RTKs). Thus far, little is known about the expression and function of mammalian Ror-family RTKs. RESULTS We have identified(More)