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In insects, control of body size is intimately linked to nutritional quality as well as environmental and genetic cues that regulate the timing of developmental transitions. Prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) has been proposed to play an essential role in regulating the production and/or release of ecdysone, a steroid hormone that stimulates molting and(More)
Ecdysteroids regulate many key developmental events in arthropods including molting and metamorphosis. Recently, members of the Drosophila Halloween group of genes, that are required for embryonic viability and cuticle deposition, have been shown to code for several cytochrome P450 enzymes that catalyze the terminal hydroxylation steps in the conversion of(More)
This article presents two on-line self-paced reading studies and three off-line acceptability judgment studies on the processing of backward anaphoric dependencies in Japanese in which a pronoun precedes potential antecedent noun phrases. The studies investigate the real-time formation of coreference relations and operatorvariable binding relations to(More)
Synthetic antibiotics and antimicrobial agents, such as sulfonamide and triclosan (TCS), have provided new avenues in the treatment of bacterial infections, as they target lethal intracellular pathways. Sulfonamide antibiotics block synthesis of folic acid by inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) while TCS block fatty acid synthesis through inhibition(More)
Thermal Z to E isomerization reactions of azobenzene and 4-dimethylamino-4'-nitroazobenzene were examined in three ionic liquids of general formula 1-R-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (R = butyl, pentyl, and hexyl). The first-order rate constants and activation energies for the reactions of azobenzene measured in these ionic liquids(More)
Males of many tephritid fruit fly species of the genus Bactrocera show a very strong affinity to methyl eugenol (ME). An attracted male compulsively ingests ME, which is then biotransformed before its metabolites are accumulated into the rectal gland. The glandular organ is known to serve as a reservoir for sex pheromone in some species. Upon ME-feeding,(More)
The swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus L., feeds exclusively on members of the plant family, Rutaceae. Female butterflies lay eggs in response to specific chemicals contained in their host plants. They perceive a variety of polar compounds as oviposition stimulants through the tarsal chemosensilla of the foreleg by drumming upon the leaf surface. We(More)
Males of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and some of its sibling species have strong affinity for methyl eugenol (ME). Methyl eugenol ingested by male flies is biotransformed in the crop to two ME metabolites that eventually accumulate in the rectal gland, which is known to serve as a reservoir for B. dorsalis sex pheromones. When fed(More)
Ecdysteroids, steroid hormones in insects, coordinate major developmental transitions. During postembryonic development, ecdysone is biosynthesized from dietary cholesterol in the prothoracic gland (PG). Despite extensive studies, the initial conversion process, the so-called "Black Box", has not been characterized. A cytochrome P450 enzyme, Spookier(More)
This paper reports a series of formal acceptability-judgment experiments designed to investigate the syntactic properties of a relatively understudied type of wh-dependency: multiple wh-questions in English. By using a factorial definition of island effects made available only by formal experiments, we report an unpredicted pattern of acceptability that(More)