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Huntington disease (HD) is caused by expansion of a glutamine repeat in the amino-terminal region of huntingtin. Despite its widespread expression, mutant huntingtin induces selective neuronal loss in striatal neurons. Here we report that, in mutant mice expressing HD repeats, the production and aggregation of N-terminal huntingtin fragments preferentially(More)
Protein structures in nature often exhibit a high degree of regularity (for example, secondary structure and tertiary symmetries) that is absent from random compact conformations. With the use of a simple lattice model of protein folding, it was demonstrated that structural regularities are related to high "designability" and evolutionary stability. The(More)
Prolonged low-frequency stimulation of excitatory afferents to basolateral amygdala neurons results in enduring enhancement of excitatory synaptic responses. The induction of this form of synaptic plasticity is eliminated by selective antagonists of GluR5 kainate receptors and can be mimicked by the GluR5 agonist ATPA. Kainate receptor-mediated synaptic(More)
Two bilaterally symmetric eyes arise from the anterior neural plate in vertebrate embryos. An interesting question is whether both eyes share a common developmental origin or they originate separately. We report here that the expression pattern of a new gene ET reveals that there is a single retina field which resolves into two separate primordia, a(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by the selective loss of striatal projection neurons. In early stages of HD, neurodegeneration preferentially occurs in the lateral globus pallidus (LGP) and substantia nigra (SN), two regions in which the axons of striatal neurons terminate. Here we report that in mice expressing full-length mutant huntingtin and(More)
This study examines forms of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the basolateral amygdala in vitro and demonstrates that a brief high frequency stimulus (HFS) train can induce a switch in the direction of the enduring change in synaptic strength induced by subsequent low-frequency stimulation (LFS). LFS (1 Hz, 15 min) of the external capsule (EC)(More)
A non-NMDA and non-AMPA receptor mediated excitatory synaptic response was identified in intracellularly recorded basolateral amygdala (BLA) neurons in an in vitro slice preparation. Synaptic potentials were evoked by stimulation of either the external capsule (EC) or basal amygdala (BA). NMDA and GABA(A) receptors were blocked by inclusion of 100 microM(More)
How aggregates of polyglutamine proteins are involved in the neurological symptoms of glutamine repeat diseases is unknown. We show that huntingtin aggregates are present in the neuronal processes of transgenic mice that express exon 1 of the Huntington's disease (HD) gene. Unlike aggregates in the nucleus, these neuropil aggregates are usually smaller and(More)
Expanded polyglutamine tracts cause huntingtin and other proteins to accumulate and aggregate in neuronal nuclei. Whether the intranuclear aggregation or localization of a polyglutamine protein initiates cellular pathology remains controversial. We established stably transfected pheochromocytoma PC12 cells that express the N-terminal fragment of huntingtin(More)
Electrophysiological studies have led to the proposal that the neurobiological mechanism(s) underlying drug therapy of anxiety and depression involve(s) regionally specific adaptations in 5-HT(1A) receptor sensitivity. Depending on the drug utilized, a decrease in sensitivity of inhibitory somatodendritic autoreceptors, an increase in sensitivity of(More)