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Tumor maintenance relies on continued activity of driver oncogenes, although their rate-limiting role is highly context dependent. Oncogenic Kras mutation is the signature event in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), serving a critical role in tumor initiation. Here, an inducible Kras(G12D)-driven PDAC mouse model establishes that advanced PDAC remains(More)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly lethal brain tumour presenting as one of two subtypes with distinct clinical histories and molecular profiles. The primary GBM subtype presents acutely as a high-grade disease that typically harbours mutations in EGFR, PTEN and INK4A/ARF (also known as CDKN2A), and the secondary GBM subtype evolves from the slow progression of(More)
A hallmark feature of glioblastoma is its strong self-renewal potential and immature differentiation state, which contributes to its plasticity and therapeutic resistance. Here, integrated genomic and biological analyses identified PLAGL2 as a potent protooncogene targeted for amplification/gain in malignant gliomas. Enhanced PLAGL2 expression strongly(More)
Initiation of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is driven by oncogenic KRAS mutation, and disease progression is associated with frequent loss of tumor suppressors. In this study, human PDAC genome analyses revealed frequent deletion of the PTEN gene as well as loss of expression in primary tumor specimens. A potential role for PTEN as a(More)
PARK2 (PARKIN) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase whose dysfunction has been associated with the progression of Parkinsonism and human malignancies, and its role in cancer remains to be explored. In this study, we report that PARK2 is frequently deleted and underexpressed in human glioma, and low PARK2 expression is associated with poor survival. Restoration of(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary brain cancer that is driven by aberrant signaling of growth factor receptors, particularly the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). EGFR signaling is tightly regulated by receptor endocytosis and lysosome-mediated degradation, although the molecular mechanisms governing such regulation,(More)
Graves' disease (GD) is a common autoimmune disease mainly caused by thyroid-stimulating antibodies (TSAbs). Interleukin 21 (IL-21) has recently been reported to play a vital role in the production of pathogenic autoantibodies in several autoimmune diseases, but less is known about GD. This study aimed to investigate the serum levels of IL-21 in GD patients(More)
Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) are implicated in tumor neovascularization, invasiveness, and therapeutic resistance. To illuminate mechanisms governing these hallmark features, we developed a de novo glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) model derived from immortalized human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNSCs) to enable precise system-level comparisons of(More)
CM101, a polysaccharide isolated from the culture medium of Group B streptococcus, a neonatal pathogen, targets pathological angiogenesis and inhibits tumor growth in mice and humans. CM101 also targets neonatal lung and adult sheep lung endothelial cells. A gene encoding a transmembrane protein that interacts with CM101 was isolated from a sheep lung(More)
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is highly amplified, mutated, and overexpressed in human malignant gliomas. Despite its prevalence and growth-promoting functions, therapeutic strategies to inhibit EGFR kinase activity have not been translated into profound beneficial effects in glioma clinical trials. To determine the roles of oncogenic EGFR(More)