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Insulin resistance arises from the inability of insulin to act normally in regulating nutrient metabolism in peripheral tissues. Increasing evidence from human population studies and animal research has established correlative as well as causative links between chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. However, the underlying molecular pathways are(More)
Genes that control the early stages of adipogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we show that murine GATA-2 and GATA-3 are specifically expressed in white adipocyte precursors and that their down-regulation sets the stage for terminal differentiation. Constitutive GATA-2 and GATA-3 expression suppressed adipocyte differentiation and trapped cells at the(More)
Direct evidence for the requirement of delay in feedback repression in the mammalian circadian clock has been elusive. Cryptochrome 1 (Cry1), an essential clock component, displays evening-time expression and serves as a strong repressor at morning-time elements (E box/E' box). In this study, we reveal that a combination of day-time elements (D box) within(More)
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) white matter injury is a major contributor to chronic neurological dysfunction. Immature oligodendrocytes (OLGs) are highly vulnerable to HI injury. As little is known about in vivo OLG repair mechanisms in neonates, we studied whether new OLGs are generated after HI injury in P7 rats. Rats received daily BrdU injections at(More)
Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. To investigate this association, we studied the effect of ultrafine (60 nm) polystyrene particles on thrombus formation in a hamster model after intravenous and intratracheal administration of unmodified, carboxylate-polystyrene, or amine-polystyrene particles. Unmodified(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to evaluate the entire picture of all monocyte chemotactic factors that potentially contribute to adipose tissue macrophage accumulation in obesity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Expression and regulation of members in the entire chemokine superfamily were evaluated in adipose tissue and isolated adipocytes of obese versus lean mice.(More)
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is well known for its immunotoxic effects particularly on the thymus. The exact mechanism by which TCDD induces thymic atrophy is not clear. In the current study, we investigated whether TCDD triggers apoptosis in thymocytes, when administered in vivo, by using the TdT-mediated FITC-dUTP nick end labeling method(More)
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) is a potent cytokine with multiple biological activities and exists in two forms as follows: a 17-kDa soluble form that is a cleaved product of the 26-kDa transmembrane form (mTNFalpha). It has been suggested that the transmembrane form of TNFalpha is mainly responsible for localized responses via cell-cell contact.(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha is a well-characterized monocyte chemoattractant; its role in regulating monocyte and microglial recruitment and activation in the injured neonatal brain is unknown. We evaluated the impact of acute hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury on the expression of MIP-1alpha in neonatal rat brain. (More)
The purpose of this research was to develop a sensitive and reproducible UPLC-MS/MS method to simultaneously quantify genistein, genistein-7-O-glucuronide (G-7-G), genistein-4'-O-glucuronide (G-4'-G), genistein-4'-O-sulfate (G-4'-S) and genistein-7-O-sulfate (G-7-S) in mouse blood samples. After the method was fully validated over a wide linear range, it(More)