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Insulin resistance arises from the inability of insulin to act normally in regulating nutrient metabolism in peripheral tissues. Increasing evidence from human population studies and animal research has established correlative as well as causative links between chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. However, the underlying molecular pathways are(More)
Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels derive their voltage sensitivity from movement of gating charges in voltage-sensor domains (VSDs). The gating charges translocate through a physical pathway in the VSD to open or close the channel. Previous studies showed that the gating charge pathways of Shaker and Kv1.2-2.1 chimeric channels are occluded, forming the(More)
BACKGROUND Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a strong candidate gene for schizophrenia and cognitive functions disrupted in this disorder. This report examines the relation of COMT genotypes to performance on a battery of working memory tests differing in the cognitive operations to be performed on the material. METHODS A large sample of 402 healthy(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to evaluate the entire picture of all monocyte chemotactic factors that potentially contribute to adipose tissue macrophage accumulation in obesity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Expression and regulation of members in the entire chemokine superfamily were evaluated in adipose tissue and isolated adipocytes of obese versus lean mice.(More)
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) white matter injury is a major contributor to chronic neurological dysfunction. Immature oligodendrocytes (OLGs) are highly vulnerable to HI injury. As little is known about in vivo OLG repair mechanisms in neonates, we studied whether new OLGs are generated after HI injury in P7 rats. Rats received daily BrdU injections at(More)
Direct evidence for the requirement of delay in feedback repression in the mammalian circadian clock has been elusive. Cryptochrome 1 (Cry1), an essential clock component, displays evening-time expression and serves as a strong repressor at morning-time elements (E box/E' box). In this study, we reveal that a combination of day-time elements (D box) within(More)
The C957T polymorphism in the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene and the Val158Met polymorphism in the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT) gene affect dopamine transmission and have been found to be associated with schizophrenia. Since DRD2 in mice and the COMT gene in humans modulate working memory, we examined the relationship and possible interaction of(More)
This 13-week, double-blind study evaluated the efficacy and safety of the atypical antipsychotic paliperidone palmitate (recently approved in the United States) versus placebo administered as monthly gluteal injections (after two initial doses given 1 week apart) in acutely symptomatic patients with schizophrenia. Patients (N=388) were randomly assigned (1(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha is a well-characterized monocyte chemoattractant; its role in regulating monocyte and microglial recruitment and activation in the injured neonatal brain is unknown. We evaluated the impact of acute hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury on the expression of MIP-1alpha in neonatal rat brain. (More)
Nanotechnology is an important and emerging industry with a projected annual market of around one trillion US dollars by 2011-2015. Concerns about the toxicity of nanomaterials in humans, however, have recently been raised. Although studies of nanoparticle toxicity have focused on lung disease the molecular link between nanoparticle exposure and lung injury(More)