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In this study, we examined whether tyrosine phosphorylation of the Toll-IL-1 resistance (TIR) domain of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 is required for signaling and blocked in endotoxin tolerance. Introduction of the P712H mutation, responsible for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) unresponsiveness of C3H/HeJ mice, into the TIR domain of constitutively active mouse(More)
Tobacco smoking has been associated with impaired pulmonary functions and increased incidence of infections; however, mechanisms that underlie these phenomena are poorly understood. In this study, we examined whether smokers' alveolar macrophages (AM) exhibit impaired sensing of bacterial components via TLR2 and TLR4 and determined the effect of smoking on(More)
Production of reactive oxygen species, often by NADPH (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidases, plays a role in the signaling responses of cells to many receptor stimuli. Here, we describe the function of the calcium-dependent, nonphagocytic NADPH oxidase Duox1 in primary human CD4(+) T cells and cultured T cell lines. Duox1(More)
Uniform gold nanostars (Au NS) were conjugated with cyclic RGD (cRGD) and near infrared (NIR) fluorescence probe (MPA) or anti-cancer drug (DOX) to obtain multi-functional nanoconstructs, Au-cRGD-MPA and Au-cRGD-DOX respectively. The NIR contrast agent Au-cRGD-MPA was shown to have low cytotoxicity. Using tumor cells and tumor bearing mice, these imaging(More)
Chloramphenicol (CAP) is one of the most effective antimicrobial agents, but its therapeutic efficacy is greatly limited by its nonspecific distribution and consequent side effects in neutrophils. Targeting to the infection sites, and thus restricting CAP nonselective delivery, provides an alternative way to overcome this limitation. The antibacterial(More)
Absence of phagocyte NADPH oxidase (NOX2) activity causes chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent bacterial infections. In contrast to this innate immune deficit, CGD patients and animal models display a predisposition toward autoimmune disease and enhanced response to Helicobacter pylori and influenza(More)
Endotoxin tolerance reprograms cell responses to LPS by repressing expression of proinflammatory cytokines, while not inhibiting production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial effectors. Molecular mechanisms of induction and maintenance of endotoxin tolerance are incompletely understood, particularly with regard to the impact of endotoxin(More)
There is a growing body of evidence to implicate reversible tyrosine phosphorylation as an important mechanism in the control of the adhesive function of cadherins. We previously demonstrated that the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP m associates with the cadherin–catenin complex in various tissues and cells and, therefore, may be a component of(More)
A better understanding of the pathogenesis of rickettsial disease requires elucidation of mechanisms governing host defense during infection. TLRs are primary sensors of microbial pathogens that activate innate immune cells, as well as initiate and orchestrate adaptive immune responses. However, the role of TLRs in rickettsia recognition and cell activation(More)