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Ginseng total saponins (GTS) are the major active components of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, which has been used as a popular tonic herb for 2000 years in Far East countries. In the present study, two classic animal models: the forced swimming test (FST) and the chronic mild stress (CMS) model were used to evaluate the antidepressant-like activities of GTS. It(More)
Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Brassicaceae), known as Maca, is a Peruvian hypocotyl growing exclusively between 4,000 and 4,500 m altitude in the central Peruvian Andes, particularly in Junin plateau. Previously, Black variety of Maca showed to be more beneficial than other varieties of Maca on learning and memory in ovariectomized mice on the water finding test.(More)
Kai Xin San (KXS), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been used clinically for the treatment of depressive disorders and cognitive impairment for centuries. However, the effects of KXS on cognitive dysfunction induced by depression have not been evaluated scientifically. The present study aimed to explore the antidepressant-like and nootropic(More)
AIM This study aimed to investigate the pure pharmacological mechanisms of baicalin/baicalein (BA) in the targeted network of mouse cerebral ischemia using a poly-dimensional network comparative analysis. METHODS Eighty mice with induced focal cerebral ischemia were randomly divided into four groups: BA, Concha Margaritifera (CM), vehicle and sham group.(More)
Using a system pharmacology strategy, this study evaluated the unique pharmacological characteristics of three different neuroprotective compounds for the treatment of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. A microarray including 374 brain ischemia-related genes was used to identify the differentially expressed genes among five treatment groups: baicalin,(More)
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE Kai Xin San (KXS), a traditional formula of Chinese medicine, has been used to treat dementia. AIM OF THE STUDY The present study aimed to investigate its ameliorating effects on Aβ1-40-induced cognitive impairment in rats using a series of novel reward-directed instrumental learning tasks, and to determine its possible(More)
Integration of Traditional Chinese medicine, including Chinese materia medica (CMM), into the national healthcare delivery system, is now an essential national policy in China and is increasing rapidly. This case study summarizes the profile of integration of CMM in China, describing markets, industries, management mechanisms, education, research and(More)
The present study aims to test two different doses of aqueous extract of black maca on learning and memory in ovariectomized (OVX) mice and their relation with malonalehyde (MDA), acetylcholinesterase (Ache) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) brain levels. Female mice were divided into five groups: (i) naive (control), (ii) sham, (iii) OVX mice and OVX mice(More)
Baicalin (BA) and jasminoidin (JA) exert an additive effect in the treatment of cerebral ischemia, but the underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear. One hundred mice with focal cerebral ischemia/re-perfusion injury were divided into 5 groups: BA, JA, combination therapy (BJ), sham and vehicle. The differentially expressed genes identified by(More)
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