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Granule cell migration influences the laminar structure of the cerebellum and thereby affects cerebellum function. Bergmann glia are derived from radial glial cells and aid in granule cell radial migration by providing a scaffold for migration and by mediating interactions between Bergmann glia and granule cells. In this review, we summarize Bergmann glia(More)
Hypoxia-induced apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is regarded as a pivotal pathological process in various ocular diseases. Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is involved in the regulation of cell inflammation, differentiation, and apoptosis in many cell types and tissues, but the role of PAR-2 in RGCs under pathological conditions remains(More)
In addition to the subventricular zone, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few brain regions in which neurogenesis continues into adulthood. Perturbation of neurogenesis can alter hippocampal function, and previous studies have shown that neurogenesis is dysregulated in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) and(More)
The versatility of neural precursor cells (NPCs) derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) has recently rekindled interests in cell replacement strategies aimed at neurodegenerative diseases. We observed the survival, migration, differentiation and functional recovery of NPCs transplanted into the hippocampus of aggregated beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide(More)
Estrogen acting through two estrogen receptors (ERs), ERalpha and ERbeta, regulates multiple functions in the central nervous system. Studies in rodent brains have revealed that ERalpha is the predominant ER in the hypothalamus and controls reproduction. ERbeta influences on non-reproductive processes and appears to be the main ER subtype expressed in the(More)
Liver X receptors (LXRs) are nuclear receptors involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism and inflammatory responses in the central nervous system. Defects in cholesterol homeostasis contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and Huntington’s disease. Inflammatory(More)
Alterations in hippocampal cell proliferation have been identified in transgenic (tg) mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Previously, we have demonstrated that endogenous level of BMP4 in the dentate gyrus (DG) affects hippocampal cell proliferation in a pentylentetrazol(More)
The failure of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is closely correlated with memory decline in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Radial glial-like cells (RGLs) localized to the adult DG generate intermediate progenitor cells and immature neurons and thus contribute to adult hippocampus neurogenesis. Memantine (MEM) has been indicated to(More)
Recent studies indicate that bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) and Noggin not only play an important role in the early development of the nervous system, but may also play a role in postnatal central nervous system (CNS) development. In this study, we examined the relative levels and localization of Noggin and BMP4 mRNA in the hippocampus of rats of(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the dysfunction or loss of a vulnerable group of neurons. At present, only a few options exist for treating neurodegenerative diseases effectively. Advances in stem cell research have raised the hope and possibility for therapy in neurodegenerative diseases. In AD transgenic animal models, stem cell(More)