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Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat in ataxin-2, the SCA2 gene product. In contrast to other polyQ diseases, intranuclear inclusions are not prominent in SCA2. In animal models with expression of mutant ataxin-2 targeted to Purkinje cells, neuronal dysfunction and morphologic changes are observed(More)
The HIV-1 protein Nef inhibits antigen presentation by class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I). We determined the mechanism of this activity by solving the crystal structure of a protein complex comprising Nef, the MHC-I cytoplasmic domain (MHC-I CD) and the μ1 subunit of the clathrin adaptor protein complex 1. A ternary, cooperative interaction(More)
To determine whether neurons lacking huntingtin can participate in development and survive in postnatal brain, we used two approaches in an effort to create mice consisting of wild-type cells and cells without huntingtin. In one approach, chimeras were created by aggregating the 4-8 cell embryos from matings of Hdh (+/-) mice with wild-type 4-8 cell(More)
The genus of Flavivirus contains important human pathogens , including dengue (DENV), yellow fever (YFV), West Nile (WNV), Japanese encephalitis (JEV), and tick-borne encephalitis (TBEV) viruses, which cause a number of serious human diseases throughout the world (Pierson TC, 2013). Zika virus (ZIKV) is also an arthropod-borne flavivirus, which was(More)
The genus Coronavirus contains about 25 species of coronaviruses (CoVs), which are important pathogens causing highly prevalent diseases and often severe or fatal in humans and animals. No licensed specific drugs are available to prevent their infection. Different host receptors for cellular entry, poorly conserved structural proteins (antigens), and the(More)
SAMHD1, a dNTP triphosphohydrolase (dNTPase), has a key role in human innate immunity. It inhibits infection of blood cells by retroviruses, including HIV, and prevents the development of the autoinflammatory Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS). The inactive apo-SAMHD1 interconverts between monomers and dimers, and in the presence of dGTP the protein assembles(More)
HIV and AIDS incidence in China is high among men who have sex with men (MSM) and ours was one of few studies in China to evaluate the role of HIV risk reduction counseling and testing. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to recruit 430 MSM. Participants were followed up at 6, 12 and 18 months to evaluate behavioral changes after counseling to reduce(More)
A cross-sectional study using the snowball sampling method was conducted in May 2008 to investigate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection status and related high risk factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Suzhou city of Jiangsu province. The researchers carried out a face-to-face questionnaire interview among MSM, and collected their blood(More)
The relationship of four potentially functional polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene, ApaI, BsmI, FokI and TaqI , with tuberculosis susceptibility were considered. The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore the association between the four polymorphisms and tuberculosis risk in different ethnic backgrounds. Eligible case-control studies that(More)