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The HIV-1 protein Nef inhibits antigen presentation by class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I). We determined the mechanism of this activity by solving the crystal structure of a protein complex comprising Nef, the MHC-I cytoplasmic domain (MHC-I CD) and the μ1 subunit of the clathrin adaptor protein complex 1. A ternary, cooperative interaction(More)
The genus Coronavirus contains about 25 species of coronaviruses (CoVs), which are important pathogens causing highly prevalent diseases and often severe or fatal in humans and animals. No licensed specific drugs are available to prevent their infection. Different host receptors for cellular entry, poorly conserved structural proteins (antigens), and the(More)
SAMHD1, a dNTP triphosphohydrolase (dNTPase), has a key role in human innate immunity. It inhibits infection of blood cells by retroviruses, including HIV, and prevents the development of the autoinflammatory Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS). The inactive apo-SAMHD1 interconverts between monomers and dimers, and in the presence of dGTP the protein assembles(More)
The relationship of four potentially functional polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene, ApaI, BsmI, FokI and TaqI , with tuberculosis susceptibility were considered. The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore the association between the four polymorphisms and tuberculosis risk in different ethnic backgrounds. Eligible case-control studies that(More)
A cross-sectional study using the snowball sampling method was conducted in May 2008 to investigate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection status and related high risk factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Suzhou city of Jiangsu province. The researchers carried out a face-to-face questionnaire interview among MSM, and collected their blood(More)
BACKGROUND Respondent-driven-sampling (RDS) has well been recognized as a method for sampling from most hard-to-reach populations like commercial sex workers, drug users and men who have sex with men. However the feasibility of this sampling strategy in terms of recruiting a diverse spectrum of these hidden populations has not been understood well yet in(More)
BACKGROUND We investigated the seropositive rates and persistence of antibody against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus (pH1N1) in pregnant women and voluntary blood donors after the second wave of the pandemic in Nanjing, China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Serum samples of unvaccinated pregnant women (n = 720) and voluntary blood donors (n = 320) were(More)