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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing(OFDM-) based amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperative communication is an effective way for single-antenna systems to exploit the spatial diversity gains in frequency-selective fading channels, but the receiver usually requires the knowledge of the channel state information to recover the transmitted signals. In this(More)
Dependency distance, measured by the linear distance between two syntactically related words in a sentence, is generally held as an important index of memory burden and an indicator of syntactic difficulty. Since this constraint of memory is common for all human beings, there may well be a universal preference for dependency distance minimization (DDM) for(More)
We report the fabrication of devices in which one single-walled carbon nanotube spans a barrier between two fluid reservoirs, enabling direct electrical measurement of ion transport through the tube. A fraction of the tubes pass anomalously high ionic currents. Electrophoretic transport of small single-stranded DNA oligomers through these tubes is marked by(More)
The interest in modeling and analyzing human language with complex networks is on the rise in recent years and a considerable body of research in this area has already been accumulated. We survey three major lines of linguistic research from the complex network approach: 1) characterization of human language as a multi-level system with complex network(More)
Using micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy, we study the relationship between structural distortion and electrical hole doping of graphene on a silicon dioxide substrate. The observed upshift of the Raman G band represents charge doping and not compressive strain. Two independent factors control the doping: (1) the degree of graphene(More)
In the recent issue of PNAS, Futrell et al. claims that their study of 37 languages gives the first large scale cross-language evidence for Dependency Length Minimization, which is an overstatement that ignores similar previous researches. In addition,this study seems to pay no attention to factors like the uniformity of genres, which weakens the validity(More)
We describe a method to form custom-shaped inorganic oxide nanostructures by using DNA nanostructure templates. We show that a DNA nanostructure can modulate the rate of chemical vapor deposition of SiO2 and TiO2 with nanometer-scale spatial resolution. The resulting oxide nanostructure inherits its shape from the DNA template. This method generates both(More)