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We report the fabrication of devices in which one single-walled carbon nanotube spans a barrier between two fluid reservoirs, enabling direct electrical measurement of ion transport through the tube. A fraction of the tubes pass anomalously high ionic currents. Electrophoretic transport of small single-stranded DNA oligomers through these tubes is marked by(More)
In the recent issue of PNAS, Futrell et al. claims that their study of 37 languages gives the first large scale cross-language evidence for Dependency Length Minimization, which is an overstatement that ignores similar previous researches. In addition,this study seems to pay no attention to factors like the uniformity of genres, which weakens the validity(More)
In typological studies on word order, the linear order of the grammatical units in a sentence is often used as the primary way to distinguish one language from another. Greenberg (1963) is generally considered as the initiator of this field. 1 Greenberg proposed 45 linguistic universals. Twenty-eight of these universals touch on the order or position of(More)
Feature selection is of great importance in recognition system design because it directly affects the overall performance of the recognition system. Feature selection can be considered as a problem of global combinatorial optimization. It is a very time-consuming task in order to search the most suitable features amongst a huge number of possible feature(More)
The phenomenon of extraordinary light transmission through metallic films perforated by nanohole arrays at optical frequencies was first observed a decade ago and initiated important further experimental and theoretical work. In view of potential applications of such structures--for example, subwavelength optics, optoelectronics devices, and chemical(More)
Recent evidence suggests an important role for outer retinal cells in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Here we investigated the effect of the visual cycle inhibitor retinylamine (Ret-NH2) on the development of early DR lesions. Wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice (male, 2 months old when diabetes was induced) were made diabetic with streptozotocin,(More)
Mixing dependency lengths from sequences of different length is a common practice in language research. However, the empirical distribution of dependency lengths of sentences of the same length differs from that of sentences of varying length. The distribution of dependency lengths depends on sentence length for real sentences and also under the null(More)