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The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is an essential step in the progression of brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. It is possible that the timing of events for ER stress signaling regulation is important for the balance of life and death such that ER stress is initially protective, aiming to restore ER homeostasis, whereas prolonged periods of ER(More)
Apelin signaling to the family of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as extracellular-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 MAPK, through the coupling of apelin receptor (APJ) to G-protein, mediates important pathophysiological responses. Although apelin fragments have been reported to induce ERK1/2 activation through Gi-protein, the(More)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative disease leading to aberrance of cartilage structures with unclear or multifactorial mechanisms. Recently, a great portion of research endeavor to explore the molecular mechanisms of OA in focusing on the mitochondrial pathology. Mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), which(More)
Apelin receptor (APJ) and kappa opioid receptor (KOR) are members of the family A of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These two receptors are involved in the central nervous system regulation of the cardiovascular system. Here, we explore the possibility of heterodimerization between APJ and KOR and investigate their novel signal transduction(More)
The morphology-dependent electrochemistry and electrocatalytical activity of cytochrome c (cyt. c) were investigated at pyramidal, rodlike, and spherical gold nanostructures directly electrodeposited onto sputtered gold surfaces. Direct, reversible electron transfer of cyt. c, for the first time, was realized at nanorod-like and nanopyramidal gold surfaces(More)
A layer-by-layer route to prepare nanoporous Au film materials on transparent ITO substrates is reported by alternatively assembling Au and Ag nanoparticles through 1,5-pentanedithiol as a cross-linker, followed by that Ag nanoparticles are dissolved at room temperature in HAuCl4 solution. Electron transfer of cytochrome c (cyt. c) - an excellent model for(More)
Acute inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenic progression of post-ischemic neuronal damage. Apelin-13 has been investigated as a neuropeptide for various neurological disorders. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of apelin-13 on the inflammation of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Transient focal I/R model in(More)
Orexin and dynorphin are co-expressed in the same synaptic vesicles of hypothalamic neurons and play opposing roles in cocaine self-administration, brain stimulation reward, and impulsivity in ventral tegmental area (VTA), where dopamine neurons express both OX1R and KORs. However, detailed mechanisms of how the coreleased peptides and both receptors(More)
The biophysical and biochemical properties of motor proteins have been well-studied, but these motors also show promise as mechanical components in hybrid nano-engineered systems. The cytoplasmic F(1) fragment of the adenosine triphosphate synthase (F1-ATPase) can function as an ATP-fuelled rotary motor and has been integrated into self-assembled(More)