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The heterophil is the major polymorphonuclear cell in birds with a functional capacity akin to that of the mammalian neutrophil. Herein, we demonstrate that heterophils constitutively express TLR1/6/10, TLR2 type 1, TLR2 type 2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR7 mRNA. Furthermore, TLR agonists, including flagellin (from Salmonella typhimurium, FGN), peptidoglycan(More)
Unmethylated CpG dinucleotides within specific flanking bases (referred to as CpG motif) are relatively abundant in bacterial DNA and are known to stimulate innate immune responses. In this study, synthetic CpG containing oligodeoxydinucleotides (CpG-ODNs) were evaluated for their ability to stimulate nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in the innate immune response of avian heterophils. We previously used the pharmacological inhibitors genistein, verapamil, chelerythrine, and pertussis toxin to investigate the upstream signaling events involved in TLR2-mediated oxidative burst in chicken heterophils. Only chelerythrine, a protein kinase C(More)
The mode of action of amitraz is thought to be its toxic effects on a receptor for a neuromodulator, octopamine. Resistance could arise from modifications of this receptor so that it would not be affected by amitraz. A putative octopamine receptor cDNA was cloned and sequenced from a cattle tick in Australia. However, when the sequence was compared between(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), which are found in the cell walls of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. This study was conducted to determine if TLRs are present on chicken heterophils and if these receptors mediate(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system for various conserved pathogen-associated molecular motifs. Chicken TLR3 and TLR21 (avian equivalent to mammalian TLR9) recognize poly I:C (double-stranded RNA) and CpG-ODN (a CpG-motif containing oligodeoxydinucleotide), respectively. Interaction between TLR3 and TLR21(More)
Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing CpG dinucleotides (CpG-ODN) mimic bacterial DNA and stimulate the innate immune system of vertebrates. Here, we investigated the effects of intraperitoneal (ip) administered CpG-ODN on the innate immune functions of chicken heterophils. Our results demonstrated CpG-ODN-dependent priming of chicken heterophil(More)
Unmethylated CpG oligodinucleotides (CpG-ODN) flanked by specific bases found in bacterial DNA are known to stimulate innate immune responses. In this study, synthetic CpG-ODNs were evaluated for their in vitro stimulation of leukocyte and in vivo protection against Salmonella enteritidis (SE) in neonatal chickens. Our studies showed that CpG-ODN stimulated(More)
We evaluated the innate immune response to various synthetic CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) by measuring nitric oxide production in the peripheral blood monocytes from turkey poults. The results indicate that the presence of the CpG dinucleotide in ODNs was a prerequisite for activation of turkey monocytes and induction of nitric oxide (NO)(More)
Economic pressure on the modern poultry industry has directed the selection process towards fast-growing broilers that have a reduced feed conversion ratio. Selection based heavily on growth characteristics could adversely affect immune competence leaving chickens more susceptible to disease. Since the innate immune response directs the acquired immune(More)