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The heterophil is the major polymorphonuclear cell in birds with a functional capacity akin to that of the mammalian neutrophil. Herein, we demonstrate that heterophils constitutively express TLR1/6/10, TLR2 type 1, TLR2 type 2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR7 mRNA. Furthermore, TLR agonists, including flagellin (from Salmonella typhimurium, FGN), peptidoglycan(More)
Unmethylated CpG dinucleotides within specific flanking bases (referred to as CpG motif) are relatively abundant in bacterial DNA and are known to stimulate innate immune responses. In this study, synthetic CpG containing oligodeoxydinucleotides (CpG-ODNs) were evaluated for their ability to stimulate nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and(More)
The mode of action of amitraz is thought to be its toxic effects on a receptor for a neuromodulator, octopamine. Resistance could arise from modifications of this receptor so that it would not be affected by amitraz. A putative octopamine receptor cDNA was cloned and sequenced from a cattle tick in Australia. However, when the sequence was compared between(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), which are found in the cell walls of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. This study was conducted to determine if TLRs are present on chicken heterophils and if these receptors mediate(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in the innate immune response of avian heterophils. We previously used the pharmacological inhibitors genistein, verapamil, chelerythrine, and pertussis toxin to investigate the upstream signaling events involved in TLR2-mediated oxidative burst in chicken heterophils. Only chelerythrine, a protein kinase C(More)
Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing CpG dinucleotides (CpG-ODN) mimic bacterial DNA and stimulate the innate immune system of vertebrates. Here, we investigated the effects of intraperitoneal (ip) administered CpG-ODN on the innate immune functions of chicken heterophils. Our results demonstrated CpG-ODN-dependent priming of chicken heterophil(More)
Heterophils play an indispensable role in the immune defense of the avian host. To accomplish this defense, heterophils use sophisticated mechanisms to both detect and destroy pathogenic microbes. Detection of pathogens through the toll-like receptors (TLR), FC and complement receptors, and other pathogen recognition receptors has been recently described(More)
Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica induce an early pro-inflammatory response in chickens, but the response is short-lived, asymptomatic of clinical disease, results in a persistent colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and can transmit infections to naïve hosts via fecal shedding of bacteria. The underlying mechanisms that facilitate this(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system for various conserved pathogen-associated molecular motifs. Chicken TLR3 and TLR21 (avian equivalent to mammalian TLR9) recognize poly I:C (double-stranded RNA) and CpG-ODN (a CpG-motif containing oligodeoxydinucleotide), respectively. Interaction between TLR3 and TLR21(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in the innate immune system for initial recognition of microbial pathogens and pathogen associated components. Nitric oxide (NO) is generated in immune cells in response to microbial stimulation and is involved in pathogenesis and control of infection. We used RT-PCR analysis to examine the TLR expression profile(More)