Learn More
The heterophil is the major polymorphonuclear cell in birds with a functional capacity akin to that of the mammalian neutrophil. Herein, we demonstrate that heterophils constitutively express TLR1/6/10, TLR2 type 1, TLR2 type 2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR7 mRNA. Furthermore, TLR agonists, including flagellin (from Salmonella typhimurium, FGN), peptidoglycan(More)
Unmethylated CpG dinucleotides within specific flanking bases (referred to as CpG motif) are relatively abundant in bacterial DNA and are known to stimulate innate immune responses. In this study, synthetic CpG containing oligodeoxydinucleotides (CpG-ODNs) were evaluated for their ability to stimulate nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and(More)
Economic pressure on the modern poultry industry has directed the selection process towards fast-growing broilers that have a reduced feed conversion ratio. Selection based heavily on growth characteristics could adversely affect immune competence leaving chickens more susceptible to disease. Since the innate immune response directs the acquired immune(More)
The mode of action of amitraz is thought to be its toxic effects on a receptor for a neuromodulator, octopamine. Resistance could arise from modifications of this receptor so that it would not be affected by amitraz. A putative octopamine receptor cDNA was cloned and sequenced from a cattle tick in Australia. However, when the sequence was compared between(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), which are found in the cell walls of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. This study was conducted to determine if TLRs are present on chicken heterophils and if these receptors mediate(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize microbial components and initiate the innate immune responses that control microbial infections. We have investigated the innate immune response of chicken monocytes to ligands of TLR3 and TLR9, poly I:C (an analog of viral double-stranded RNA) and CpG-ODN (a CpG-motif containing oligodeoxydinucleotide) by measuring the(More)
Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing CpG dinucleotides (CpG-ODN) mimic bacterial DNA and stimulate the innate immune system of vertebrates. Here, we investigated the effects of intraperitoneal (ip) administered CpG-ODN on the innate immune functions of chicken heterophils. Our results demonstrated CpG-ODN-dependent priming of chicken heterophil(More)
We have characterized the nitric oxide (NO) induction by CpG oligodeoxydinucleotide (CpG-ODN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in an avian macrophage cell line (HD11) and evaluated signal transduction pathways by using selective inhibitors. Our results indicate that while CpG-ODN and LPS both stimulate inducible NO synthase (iNOS) to produce NO through common(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in the innate immune system for initial recognition of microbial pathogens and pathogen associated components. Nitric oxide (NO) is generated in immune cells in response to microbial stimulation and is involved in pathogenesis and control of infection. We used RT-PCR analysis to examine the TLR expression profile(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system for various conserved pathogen-associated molecular motifs. Chicken TLR3 and TLR21 (avian equivalent to mammalian TLR9) recognize poly I:C (double-stranded RNA) and CpG-ODN (a CpG-motif containing oligodeoxydinucleotide), respectively. Interaction between TLR3 and TLR21(More)