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The heterophil is the major polymorphonuclear cell in birds with a functional capacity akin to that of the mammalian neutrophil. Herein, we demonstrate that heterophils constitutively express TLR1/6/10, TLR2 type 1, TLR2 type 2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR7 mRNA. Furthermore, TLR agonists, including flagellin (from Salmonella typhimurium, FGN), peptidoglycan(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), which are found in the cell walls of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. This study was conducted to determine if TLRs are present on chicken heterophils and if these receptors mediate(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system for various conserved pathogen-associated molecular motifs. Chicken TLR3 and TLR21 (avian equivalent to mammalian TLR9) recognize poly I:C (double-stranded RNA) and CpG-ODN (a CpG-motif containing oligodeoxydinucleotide), respectively. Interaction between TLR3 and TLR21(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize microbial components and initiate the innate immune responses that control microbial infections. We have investigated the innate immune response of chicken monocytes to ligands of TLR3 and TLR9, poly I:C (an analog of viral double-stranded RNA) and CpG-ODN (a CpG-motif containing oligodeoxydinucleotide) by measuring the(More)
Heterophils are the predominant polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in poultry. The oxidative burst of activated heterophils, which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), is one of the first line cellular defenses against invading microorganisms. In this report, the oxidative response of heterophils from neonatal chicks to in vitro stimulation by various(More)
Unmethylated CpG dinucleotides within specific flanking bases (referred to as CpG motif) are relatively abundant in bacterial DNA and are known to stimulate innate immune responses. In this study, synthetic CpG containing oligodeoxydinucleotides (CpG-ODNs) were evaluated for their ability to stimulate nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and(More)
Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing CpG dinucleotides (CpG-ODN) mimic bacterial DNA and stimulate the innate immune system of vertebrates. Here, we investigated the effects of intraperitoneal (ip) administered CpG-ODN on the innate immune functions of chicken heterophils. Our results demonstrated CpG-ODN-dependent priming of chicken heterophil(More)
We have characterized the nitric oxide (NO) induction by CpG oligodeoxydinucleotide (CpG-ODN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in an avian macrophage cell line (HD11) and evaluated signal transduction pathways by using selective inhibitors. Our results indicate that while CpG-ODN and LPS both stimulate inducible NO synthase (iNOS) to produce NO through common(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in the innate immune system for initial recognition of microbial pathogens and pathogen associated components. Nitric oxide (NO) is generated in immune cells in response to microbial stimulation and is involved in pathogenesis and control of infection. We used RT-PCR analysis to examine the TLR expression profile(More)
Nitric oxide is a rapidly reacting free radical which has cytotoxic effects during inflammatory responses and regulatory effects as a component of signal transduction cascades. We quantified the production of nitrite, a stable metabolite of nitric oxide, in chicken heterophils, monocytes and macrophages after stimulation by IFNgamma, LPS and killed(More)