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The Sir2 deacetylase modulates organismal life-span in various species. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Sir2 increases longevity are largely unknown. We show that in mammalian cells, the Sir2 homolog SIRT1 appears to control the cellular response to stress by regulating the FOXO family of Forkhead transcription factors, a family of proteins that(More)
In diverse organisms, calorie restriction slows the pace of ageing and increases maximum lifespan. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, calorie restriction extends lifespan by increasing the activity of Sir2 (ref. 1), a member of the conserved sirtuin family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases. Included in this family are SIR-2.1, a(More)
A major cause of aging is thought to result from the cumulative effects of cell loss over time. In yeast, caloric restriction (CR) delays aging by activating the Sir2 deacetylase. Here we show that expression of mammalian Sir2 (SIRT1) is induced in CR rats as well as in human cells that are treated with serum from these animals. Insulin and insulin-like(More)
Apoptosis is a key tumor suppression mechanism that can be initiated by activation of the proapoptotic factor Bax. The Ku70 DNA end-joining protein has recently been shown to suppress apoptosis by sequestering Bax from mitochondria. The mechanism by which Bax is regulated remains unknown. Here, we identify eight lysines in Ku70 that are targets for(More)
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sir2 protein is an NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase that plays a critical role in transcriptional silencing, genome stability, and longevity. A human homologue of Sir2, SIRT1, regulates the activity of the p53 tumor suppressor and inhibits apoptosis. The Sir2 deacetylation reaction generates two products: O-acetyl-ADP-ribose(More)
The significant increase in human lifespan during the past century confronts us with great medical challenges. To meet these challenges, the mechanisms that determine healthy ageing must be understood and controlled. Sirtuins are highly conserved deacetylases that have been shown to regulate lifespan in yeast, nematodes and fruitflies. However, the role of(More)
Yeast deprived of nutrients exhibit a marked life span extension that requires the activity of the NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase, Sir2p. Here we show that increased dosage of NPT1, encoding a nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase critical for the NAD(+) salvage pathway, increases Sir2-dependent silencing, stabilizes the rDNA locus, and extends yeast(More)
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SGS1 gene encodes a RecQ-like DNA helicase, human homologues of which are implicated in the genetic instability disorders, Bloom syndrome (BS), Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS), and Werner syndrome (WS). Telomerase-negative yeast cells can recover from senescence via two recombinational telomere elongation pathways. The "type I"(More)
The DNA end-joining protein Ku70 is one of several proteins that inhibit apoptosis by sequestering the proapoptotic factor Bax from the mitochondria. However, the molecular mechanism underlying Ku70-dependent inhibition of Bax is not fully understood. Here, we show that the absence of Ku70 results in the accumulation of ubiquitylated Bax. Under normal(More)
ADAR proteins are among the most extensively studied RNA binding proteins. They bind to their target and deaminate specific adenosines to inosines. ADAR activity is essential, and the editing of a subset of their targets is critical for viability. Recently, a huge number of novel ADAR targets were detected by analyzing next generation sequencing data. Most(More)