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The Sir2 deacetylase modulates organismal life-span in various species. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Sir2 increases longevity are largely unknown. We show that in mammalian cells, the Sir2 homolog SIRT1 appears to control the cellular response to stress by regulating the FOXO family of Forkhead transcription factors, a family of proteins that(More)
In diverse organisms, calorie restriction slows the pace of ageing and increases maximum lifespan. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, calorie restriction extends lifespan by increasing the activity of Sir2 (ref. 1), a member of the conserved sirtuin family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases. Included in this family are SIR-2.1, a(More)
A major cause of aging is thought to result from the cumulative effects of cell loss over time. In yeast, caloric restriction (CR) delays aging by activating the Sir2 deacetylase. Here we show that expression of mammalian Sir2 (SIRT1) is induced in CR rats as well as in human cells that are treated with serum from these animals. Insulin and insulin-like(More)
The significant increase in human lifespan during the past century confronts us with great medical challenges. To meet these challenges, the mechanisms that determine healthy ageing must be understood and controlled. Sirtuins are highly conserved deacetylases that have been shown to regulate lifespan in yeast, nematodes and fruitflies. However, the role of(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Dopamine neurotoxicity, mediated through oxidative stress, is implicated in disease pathogenesis. The vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) transfers dopamine into synaptic vesicles preparing it for exocytotic release and preventing its cytoplasmic oxidation. DJ-1 mutations(More)
ADAR proteins are among the most extensively studied RNA binding proteins. They bind to their target and deaminate specific adenosines to inosines. ADAR activity is essential, and the editing of a subset of their targets is critical for viability. Recently, a huge number of novel ADAR targets were detected by analyzing next generation sequencing data. Most(More)
The growing availability of 'omics' data and high-quality in silico genome-scale metabolic models (GSMMs) provide a golden opportunity for the systematic identification of new metabolic drug targets. Extant GSMM-based methods aim at identifying drug targets that would kill the target cell, focusing on antibiotics or cancer treatments. However, normal human(More)
Sirtuins are NAD+ dependent deacylases enzymes. There are seven mammalian sirtuins, SIRT1–SIRT7, which are localized to different cellular compartments and are capable of diverse catalytic activities. SIRT6 is a key regulator of healthy ageing. In the past decade our understanding of SIRT6 significantly increased in many different aspects. We know its(More)
The SIRT6 deacetylase is a key regulator of mammalian genome stability, metabolism and lifespan. Previous studies indicated that SIRT6 exhibits poor deacetylase activity in vitro. Here, we explored the specific conditions that allow SIRT6 to function as a significant deacetylase. We show that SIRT6 associates with the nucleosome and deacetylates histones H3(More)