Hailong Liang

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The functions of many open reading frames (ORFs) identified in genome-sequencing projects are unknown. New, whole-genome approaches are required to systematically determine their function. A total of 6925 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were constructed, by a high-throughput strategy, each with a precise deletion of one of 2026 ORFs (more than one-third of(More)
Heterodimerization between members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins is a key event in the regulation of programmed cell death. The molecular basis for heterodimer formation was investigated by determination of the solution structure of a complex between the survival protein Bcl-xL and the death-promoting region of the Bcl-2-related protein Bak. The structure(More)
THE Bcl-2 family of proteins regulate programmed cell death by an unknown mechanism. Here we describe the crystal and solution structures of a Bcl-2 family member, Bcl-xL (ref. 2). The structures consist of two central, primarily hydrophobic alpha-helices, which are surrounded by amphipathic helices. A 60-residue loop connecting helices alpha1 and alpha2(More)
Lowering the dosage of a single gene from two copies to one copy in diploid yeast results in a heterozygote that is sensitized to any drug that acts on the product of this gene. This haploinsufficient phenotype thereby identifies the gene product of the heterozygous locus as the likely drug target. We exploited this finding in a genomic approach to(More)
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unique among eukaryotes in exhibiting fast growth in both the presence and the complete absence of oxygen. Genome-wide transcriptional adaptation to aerobiosis and anaerobiosis was studied in assays using DNA microarrays. This technique was combined with chemostat cultivation, which allows controlled variation of a(More)
Endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) is phosphorylated at Ser-1179 (bovine sequence) by Akt after growth factor or shear stress stimulation of endothelial cells, resulting in increased eNOS activity. Purified eNOS is also phosphorylated at Thr-497 by purified AMP-activated protein kinase, resulting in decreased eNOS activity. We investigated whether(More)
Bcl-2-related proteins are critical regulators of cell survival that are localized to the outer mitochondrial, outer nuclear and endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Despite their physiological importance, the biochemical function of Bcl-2-related proteins has remained elusive. The three-dimensional structure of Bcl-xL, an inhibitor of apoptosis, was recently(More)
SETTING Crowded townships of Cape Town, South Africa, where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence and tuberculosis (TB) notification rates are among the highest in the world. OBJECTIVES To determine age-specific prevalence rates of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among HIV-negative individuals, and the annual risk and force of infection(More)
O-linked saccharides were released from a major cell wall glycoprotein and from cellular mannan-protein complexes obtained from Pichia pastoris cells. Analysis by a variety of chromatographic methods and exoglycosidase digestions revealed the presence of mannose and (alpha1-2)-linked dimer, trimer and tetramer saccharides of mannose. The recombinant kringle(More)
A measurement of the energy dependence of antineutrino disappearance at the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment is reported. Electron antineutrinos (ν¯(e)) from six 2.9  GW(th) reactors were detected with six detectors deployed in two near (effective baselines 512 and 561 m) and one far (1579 m) underground experimental halls. Using 217 days of data, 41(More)