Hailong Guo

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Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) play a critical role in regulating B cell receptor- and T cell receptor-mediated signaling. However, their role in natural killer (NK) cell development and functions is not well understood. Using mice expressing p110 delta(D910A), a catalytically inactive p110 delta, we show that these mice had reduced NK cellularity,(More)
Influenza primed mice are protected against lethal infection with H1N1 A/CA/04/E3/09 virus, and T depletion and serum transfer studies suggest a T-dependent mechanism. We therefore set out to investigate the quality of the cross-reactive T cell response to CA/E3/09 in mice primed with H3N2 influenza A/Hong Kong/X31 virus. Sequences of the immunodominant(More)
Chloroplast retrograde signals play important roles in coordinating the plastid and nuclear gene expression and are critical for proper chloroplast biogenesis and for maintaining optimal chloroplast functions in response to environmental changes in plants. Until now, the signals and the mechanisms for retrograde signalling remain poorly understood. Here we(More)
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