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One of the most notable characteristics of synaptic transmission is the wide variation in synaptic strength in response to identical stimulation. In hippocampal neurons, approximately one-third of axonal mitochondria are highly motile, and some dynamically pass through presynaptic boutons. This raises a fundamental question: can motile mitochondria(More)
Neuron maintenance and survival require late endocytic transport from distal processes to the soma where lysosomes are predominantly localized. Here, we report a role for Snapin in attaching dynein to late endosomes through its intermediate chain (DIC). snapin(-/-) neurons exhibit aberrant accumulation of immature lysosomes, clustering and impaired(More)
Whole-cell currents in cultured hippocampal neurons were recorded to investigate the effects of SO-3, a new O-superfamily conopeptide derived from Conus striatus, on voltage-sensitive channels. SO-3 had no effect on voltage-sensitive sodium currents, delayed rectifier potassium currents, and transient outward potassium currents. Similar to the selective(More)
The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the cognitive deficiency of senescence-accelerated mouse prone/8 (SAMP8) have been attributed to many pathological changes in neurons. Recently, increasing evidence has shown that astrocytes, by mean of d-serine, involve in the process of synaptic transmission. Here we reported that the long-term potentiation(More)
Islet cell replacement is considered as the optimal treatment for type I diabetes. However, the availability of human pancreatic islets for transplantation is limited. Here, we show that human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) could be induced to differentiate into functional insulin-producing cells by introduction of the pancreatic(More)
BACKGROUND The 14-3-3 family of proteins is implicated in the regulation of several key neuronal processes. Previous human and animal studies suggested an association between 14-3-3 dysregulation and schizophrenia. METHODS We characterized behavioral and functional changes in transgenic mice that express an isoform-independent 14-3-3 inhibitor peptide in(More)
14-3-3 is a family of regulatory proteins highly expressed in the brain. Previous invertebrate studies have demonstrated the importance of 14-3-3 in the regulation of synaptic functions and learning and memory. However, the in vivo role of 14-3-3 in these processes has not been determined using mammalian animal models. Here, we report the behavioral and(More)
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE Liuwei Dihuang decoction (LW) is a typical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription and consists of six herbs including Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. (family: Scrophulariaceae), Cornus officinalis Sieb. (family: Cornaceae), Dioscorea opposite Thunb. (family: Dioscoreaceae), Alisma orientale (G. Samuelsson) Juz (family:(More)
Kainate receptors (KARs) are one of the ionotropic glutamate receptors that mediate excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) with characteristically slow kinetics. Although mechanisms for the slow kinetics of KAR-EPSCs are not totally understood, recent evidence has implicated a regulatory role of KAR-associated proteins. Here, we report that decay kinetics(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of electroacupuncture at ST36 for patients with gastrointestinal motility disorders. While several lines of evidence suggest that the effect may involve vagal reflex, the precise molecular mechanism underlying this process still remains unclear. Here we report that the intragastric pressure increase induced by(More)