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Morphine-induced analgesia and antinociceptive tolerance are known to be modulated by interaction between delta-opioid receptors (DORs) and mu-opioid receptors (MORs) in the pain pathway. However, evidence for expression of DORs in nociceptive small-diameter neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and for coexistence of DORs with MORs and neuropeptides has(More)
δ-opioid receptors (DORs) form heteromers with μ-opioid receptors (MORs) and negatively regulate MOR-mediated spinal analgesia. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unclear. The present study shows that the activity of MORs can be enhanced by preventing MORs from DOR-mediated codegradation. Treatment with DOR-specific agonists led to(More)
The unconstrained quadratic binary program (UQP) is proving to be a successful modeling and solution framework for a variety of combinatorial optimization problems. Experience reported in the literature with several problem classes has demonstrated that this approach works surprisingly well in terms of solution quality and computational times, often(More)
BACKGROUND Sexual transmission is the fastest growing route of HIV transmission in China. We undertook this study to describe the risk factors for HIV infection in female sex workers (FSWs), and to determine the commercial sex venues where FSWs are most at risk of being infected with or infecting others with HIV. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study(More)
Selectins mediate leukocyte rolling and prime leukocytes for integrin-mediated leukocyte adhesion. However, neither the in vivo importance of nor the signaling pathway by which selectin-mediated integrin activation occurs has been determined. We report here that P-selectin-deficient mice manifested impaired leukocyte adhesion, which was 'rescued' by soluble(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess the prevalence and risk factors of HIV among male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in China. METHODS Convenience sampling methods were used to recruit 315 clients using FSW-client and client-client networks. Subjects provided information on sociodemographic characteristics and sexual and drug behavior patterns. Blood samples were(More)
BACKGROUND The mobility of female sex workers (FSWs) is a factor in the geographic spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study describes FSW mobility patterns in a high risk area of China to identify factors associated with increased mobility, and to study the incidence and prevalence of HIV/STIs(More)
Stimulus-induced exocytosis of large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs) leads to discharge of neuropeptides and fusion of LDCV membranes with the plasma membrane. However, the contribution of LDCVs to the properties of the neuronal membrane remains largely unclear. The present study found that LDCVs were associated with multiple receptors, channels and signaling(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment for drug addiction in China can take place in mandatory detoxification centers (MDC), voluntary detoxification centers (VDC), or at outreach programs located in the community. To date little is known about HIV prevalence or associated risk factors among the current and past drug users (DU) in each setting. METHODS Cross-sectional(More)
In recent years the unconstrained quadratic binary program has emerged as a unified modeling and solution framework for a variety of combinatorial optimization problems. Experience reported in the literature with several problem classes has demonstrated that this unified approach works surprisingly well in terms of solution quality and computational times,(More)