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The transport of auxin controls developmental events in plants. Here, we report that in addition to maintaining vacuolar pH, the H+-pyrophosphatase, AVP1, controls auxin transport and consequently auxin-dependent development. AVP1 overexpression results in increased cell division at the onset of organ formation, hyperplasia, and increased auxin transport.(More)
It is well accepted that lateral redistribution of the phytohormone auxin underlies the bending of plant organs towards light. In monocots, photoreception occurs at the shoot tip above the region of differential growth. Despite more than a century of research, it is still unresolved how light regulates auxin distribution and where this occurs in dicots.(More)
—In mobile reception, the reliability of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is limited because of the time-varying nature of the channel. This causes intercarrier interference (ICI) and increases inaccuracies in channel tracking. In this paper, we model the ICI using derivatives of the channel amplitude. This allows us to design a relatively(More)
Extensive measurements are conducted in room environments at 60 GHz to analyze the channel characteristics for various channel configurations. Channel parameters retrieved from measurements are presented and analyzed based on generic channel models. Particularly, a simple single-cluster model is applied for the parameter retrieval and performance(More)
— Wideband channel measurements at the 60 GHz frequency band in a reflective environment with different antenna heights are presented. The log-distance model of the normalized received power (NRP) is used to fit the measured data for both line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) cases. Also, the impact of the biconical antennas and the reflective(More)
In contrast to mammalian ABCB1 proteins, narrow substrate specificity has been extensively documented for plant orthologs shown to catalyze the transport of the plant hormone, auxin. Using the crystal structures of the multidrug exporters Sav1866 and MmABCB1 as templates, we have developed structural models of plant ABCB proteins with a common architecture.(More)
— This paper describes the wideband measurements conducted at the frequencies 58 GHz and 2.25 GHz in an indoor environment. Normalized received power (NRP) and root-mean-squared (RMS) delay spread are calculated and used to compare the characteristics of radio wave propagation in both line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight areas at the two frequencies. The(More)
—The impact of directional antennas and multi-antenna beamformers on radio transmission is formulated in terms of the gain of the Rician K-factor, the reduction of the root-mean-squared delay spread, and the gain of the signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver for Rician fading channels in mul-tipath environments. The analysis is based on a double-directional(More)
— Wideband channel measurements at the 60 GHz frequency band in a reflective environment with different antenna heights are presented. The log-distance model of the normalized received power (NRP) is used to fit the measured data for both line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) cases. Also, the impact of the biconical antennas and the reflective(More)