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Using 19 years of Chinese soil moisture data from 1981-1999, we evaluate soil moisture in three reanalysis outputs: ERA40, NCEP/NCAR reanalysis (R-1), and NCEP/DOE reanalysis 2 (R-2) over China. R-2 shows better interannual variability and seasonal patterns of soil moisture than R-1 as the result of incorporation of observed precipitation. ERA40 produces a(More)
In this paper a novel multiple access scheme, M-CSMA-RL, is proposed for secondary users which combines multichannel 1-persistent CSMA and reinforcement learning. The scheme effectively reduces the probability of packet collisions among primary and secondary users sharing common spectrum. Compared with multichannel CSMA without learning, the throughput and(More)
In this paper, we present an Multi-Dimensional Learning multiple access control scheme for cognitive radio users in unlicensed spectrum. The proposed scheme is developed by applying reinforcement learning to the perspectives of both channel assignment and retransmission policy based upon a multichannel p-persistent CSMA algorithm. In a distributed open(More)
Image segmentation method based on improved graph cut algorithm is proposed in this paper to improve the speed of graph cut and solve the watershed transformation over-segmentation phenomena. First, the image is segmented into a large number of small partitions making use of the watershed transformation. Then, a simplified network graph is constructed using(More)
A distinctive new LMS algorithm is proposed in this paper. Both fast convergence rate and small steady state error can be obtained through non-linear weighting N errors of the current moment and past moments in this algorithm. The algorithm analyzed that the ideal step size is achieved by increasing the error information, building new nonlinear relations(More)
The detailed analysis of the standards of roof crush resistance was presented in this paper. Based on the comparison of GB 26134-2010, FMVSS 216 and FMVSS 216a, come to the conclusion about the trend of roof crush resistance standard-stronger crush resistance and less injury potential in rollover accidents. In this paper the test machine, test process and(More)
BACKGROUND Fermentable sugars are important intermediates in the biological conversion of biomass. Hemicellulose and amorphous cellulose are easily hydrolyzed to fermentable sugars in dilute acid, whereas crystalline cellulose is more difficult to be hydrolyzed. Cellulose fast pyrolysis is an alternative method to liberate valuable fermentable sugars from(More)