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Using 19 years of Chinese soil moisture data from 1981-1999, we evaluate soil moisture in three reanalysis outputs: ERA40, NCEP/NCAR reanalysis (R-1), and NCEP/DOE reanalysis 2 (R-2) over China. R-2 shows better interannual variability and seasonal patterns of soil moisture than R-1 as the result of incorporation of observed precipitation. ERA40 produces a(More)
BACKGROUND Fermentable sugars are important intermediates in the biological conversion of biomass. Hemicellulose and amorphous cellulose are easily hydrolyzed to fermentable sugars in dilute acid, whereas crystalline cellulose is more difficult to be hydrolyzed. Cellulose fast pyrolysis is an alternative method to liberate valuable fermentable sugars from(More)
A new type of prefabricated arch culvert is consisted of precast arch pieces and cast-in-place concrete bases. The shape of precast arch pieces is confirmed by catenary theory. In the case of simulating placement in layers of embankment, internal forces of arch piece structure are statically analyzed by using finite element method. The results indicate that(More)
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