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Optic disc (OD) and fovea locations are two important anatomical landmarks in automated analysis of retinal disease in color fundus photographs. This paper presents a new, fast, fully automatic optic disc and fovea localization algorithm developed for diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening. The optic disc localization methodology comprises of two steps. First,(More)
A digital image watermark embedding and extracting algorithm is presented based on the multi-scale Ridgelet Transform (RT) which can efficiently represent image with linear singularities. RT also has directional sensitivity so that among the transformed coefficients the most significant one represents the most energetic direction of straight edges in an(More)
The study of brain function by fMRI is currently a cynosure of researchers. In this study, we performed mental calculation as a cognitive task and used MRI for data collection. Activated brain areas were found by the software of SPM. Moreover, the average of BOLD signal (Average-BOLD) and the principal component signal by principal component analysis (PCA)(More)
Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) is a spatio-temporal renewable network model. As an analytical method of causality of functional integration in fMRI, DCM is applied to study the effective connectivity. The neuro-imaging time series of activated regions were put into DCM, and the trial-bound inputs were used as perturbations to the designed model. DCM was used(More)
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