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Ethacrynic acid (EA) is known to interact with aminoglycoside antibiotics such as gentamicin (GM). In the chinchilla, co-administration of GM and EA can produce hair cell lesions ranging from a small loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) in the base of the cochlea to complete destruction of all hair cells, depending on dosing parameters. Although hair cell loss(More)
Noise exposure is a major cause of hearing loss. Classical methods of studying protein involvement have provided a basis for understanding signaling pathways that mediate hearing loss and damage repair but do not lend themselves to studying large networks of proteins that are likely to increase or decrease during noise trauma. To address this issue,(More)
The expanding arsenal of transgenic mice has created a powerful tool for investigating the biological mechanisms involved in ototoxicity. However, cisplatin ototoxicity is difficult to investigate in mice because of their small size and vulnerability to death by nephrotoxicity. To overcome this problem, we developed a strategy for promoting(More)
BACKGROUND Micronuclei (MN) in mammalian cells serve as a reliable biomarker of genomic instability and genotoxic exposure. Elevation of MN is commonly observed in cells bearing intrinsic genomic instability and in normal cells exposed to genotoxic agents. DNA double-strand breaks are marked by phosphorylation of H2AX at serine 139 (γ-H2AX). One subclass of(More)
Cadmium (Cd), a widely used industrial metal, is extremely nephrotoxic and neurotoxic; however, its effects on the peripheral auditory system are poorly understood. To evaluate the ototoxicity of Cd, we treated cochlear organotypic cultures from postnatal day 3 rats with Cd concentrations from 10 to 500 μM for 24 or 48 h. Afterward, we evaluated the degree(More)
A fundamental observation in biology is that mitochondrial function, as measured by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), changes significantly with age, suggesting a potential mechanistic link between the cellular processes governing longevity and mitochondrial metabolism homeostasis. In addition, it is well established that altered ROS levels are(More)
BACKGROUND Mefloquine is widely used for the treatment of malaria. However, this drug is known to induce neurological side effects including depression, anxiety, balance disorder, and sensorineural hearing loss. Yet, there is currently no treatment for these side effects. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS In this study, we show that the coenzyme NAD(+), known to play a(More)
Chronic exposure to manganese (Mn) can cause manganism, a neurodegenerative disorder similar to Parkinson's disease. The toxicity of Mn includes impairment of astrocytic glutamate transporters. 17beta-Estradiol (E2) has been shown to be neuroprotective in various neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, and some(More)
Mefloquine is an effective and widely used anti-malarial drug; however, some clinical reports suggest that it can cause dizziness, balance, and vestibular disturbances. To determine if mefloquine might be toxic to the vestibular system, we applied mefloquine to organotypic cultures of the macula of the utricle from postnatal day 3 rats. The macula of the(More)
Ouabain is a common tool to explore the pathophysiological changes in adult mammalian cochlea in vivo. In prior studies, locally administering ouabain via round window membrane demonstrated that the ototoxic effects of ouabain in vivo varied among mammalian species. Little is known about the ototoxic effects in vitro. Thus, we prepared cochlear organotypic(More)