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Granule cell migration influences the laminar structure of the cerebellum and thereby affects cerebellum function. Bergmann glia are derived from radial glial cells and aid in granule cell radial migration by providing a scaffold for migration and by mediating interactions between Bergmann glia and granule cells. In this review, we summarize Bergmann glia(More)
The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of few regions in the adult mammalian brain characterized by ongoing neurogenesis. It has been demonstrated that Noggin antagonizes bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) to create a niche for subventricular zone neurogenesis. We previously demonstrated that Noggin and BMP4 showed strong expression in the(More)
AIM To investigate the effect of antisense oligonucleotide (ASODN) of noggin on rat spatial learning and memory. METHODS Expression of noggin mRNA was measured by in situ hybridization method and the ability to spatial learning and memory was tested with Morris water maze. RESULTS Compared with control rats, noggin mRNA positive neurons in dentate gyrus(More)
Hypoxia-induced apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is regarded as a pivotal pathological process in various ocular diseases. Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is involved in the regulation of cell inflammation, differentiation, and apoptosis in many cell types and tissues, but the role of PAR-2 in RGCs under pathological conditions remains(More)
In addition to the subventricular zone, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few brain regions in which neurogenesis continues into adulthood. Perturbation of neurogenesis can alter hippocampal function, and previous studies have shown that neurogenesis is dysregulated in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) and(More)
The versatility of neural precursor cells (NPCs) derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) has recently rekindled interests in cell replacement strategies aimed at neurodegenerative diseases. We observed the survival, migration, differentiation and functional recovery of NPCs transplanted into the hippocampus of aggregated beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide(More)
Alterations in hippocampal cell proliferation have been identified in transgenic (tg) mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Previously, we have demonstrated that endogenous level of BMP4 in the dentate gyrus (DG) affects hippocampal cell proliferation in a pentylentetrazol(More)
UNLABELLED Abstract Purpose of the Study: Protein tyrosine phosphatase σ (PTPσ) acts as a neuronal receptor for chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). CSPGs have inhibitory effects on experience-dependent plasticity and usually form lattice-like cell coatings that surround the parvalbumin (PV) interneurons in the visual cortex (VC). We investigated(More)
Estrogen acting through two estrogen receptors (ERs), ERalpha and ERbeta, regulates multiple functions in the central nervous system. Studies in rodent brains have revealed that ERalpha is the predominant ER in the hypothalamus and controls reproduction. ERbeta influences on non-reproductive processes and appears to be the main ER subtype expressed in the(More)
Liver X receptors (LXRs) are nuclear receptors involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism and inflammatory responses in the central nervous system. Defects in cholesterol homeostasis contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and Huntington’s disease. Inflammatory(More)