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It is well established that glutamate and its receptors, particularly the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), play a significant role in addiction and that the inhibition of glutamatergic hyperfunction reduces addictive behaviors in experimental animals. Specifically, NMDAR antagonists such as MK-801, and an inducer of the expression of glutamate(More)
Previous studies have shown that olfactory impairment by disrupting the olfactory epithelium prior to morphine administration attenuated the development addiction-related behaviors. However, it is unclear whether olfactory impairment will affect the expression of already established addiction-related behaviors. To address this issue, mice were conditioned(More)
BACKGROUND Tree shrews are close relatives of primates, and are increasingly used as models in the research of vision, social stress and neurological/psychiatric diseases. However, neuroimaging techniques, for example magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, are only rarely applied to this species to study the structure and function of the brain. A template MR(More)
Association between the reward caused by consuming drugs and the context in which they are consumed is essential in the formation of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). Glucocorticoid receptor (GRs) activation in different regions of the brain affects reward-based reinforcement and memory processing. A wide array of studies have(More)
Animals attain information about their environment through different sense organs. For example, the dominant external resource about the environment for rodents is obtained through olfaction. Many environmental conditions (stress or enriched environment) are known to affect an animal's susceptibility to drug addiction. However, it is not known how external(More)
Tree shrews are small mammals now commonly classified in the order of Scandentia, but have relatively closer affinity to primates than rodents. The species has a high brain-to-body mass ratio and relatively well-differentiated neocortex, and thus has been frequently used in neuroscience research, especially for studies on vision and neurological/psychiatric(More)
Research in the last decade demonstrated that the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) has an important role in opiate-induced neural and behavioral plasticity. In addition, increased levels of FosB-like proteins (FosB/ΔFosB) were found to be related to morphine withdrawal behaviors. However, the relationship between NMDAR and FosB/ΔFosB in sensitive brain regions during(More)
Many neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, have been associated with olfactory dysfunction and abnormalities in the prepulse inhibition (PPI) response to a startle reflex. However, whether these two abnormalities could be related is unclear. The present investigations were designed to determine whether theblockage of olfactory sensory input by(More)
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