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An automatic test-generation tool can produce a large number of test inputs to exercise the class under test. However, without specifications, developers cannot inspect the execution of each automatically generated test input practically. To address the problem, we have developed an automatic test abstraction tool, called Abstra, to extract high level(More)
Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris) is a nutritious and affordable pulse with an ancient crop domestication history. The genus Lens consists of seven taxa, however, there are many discrepancies in the taxon and gene pool classification of lentil and its wild relatives. Due to the narrow genetic basis of cultivated lentil, there is a need towards better(More)
Widening the genetic base of minor grain legume crops such as lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is important for achieving future gains in productivity. In order to access genes from wild lentil species embryo rescue techniques are required to overcome reproductive barriers. Removing the seed coat from developing 14-day old immature hybrid seeds and culturing(More)
A large number of epidemiological studies have been performed to investigate the association between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk and interleukin-1β −511C/T genetic polymorphism, however, inconsistent results have been reported. The effect of the IL-1β −511C/T polymorphism on AD susceptibility was evaluated by a meta-analysis. Series of databases were(More)
Some requirement modelling languages such as UML's statechart diagrams allow developers to specify requirements of state-transition behavior in a visual way. These requirement specifications are useful in many ways, including helping program understanding and specification-based testing. However, there are a large number of legacy systems that are not(More)
Legumes are recalcitrant to androgenesis and induction protocols were only recently developed for pea (Pisum sativum L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), albeit with low regeneration frequencies. Androgenesis is thought to be mediated through abscisic acid (ABA) but other phytohormones, such as auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins, have also been(More)
Developmental context and species-specific hormone requirements are of key importance in the advancement of in vitro protocols and manipulation of seed development. Improvement of in vitro tissue and cell culture protocols in grain legumes such as embryo rescue, interspecific hybridization, and androgenesis requires an understanding of the types, activity,(More)
Cicer anatolicum, a perennial species, has ascochyta blight resistance superior to that found in the cultivated chickpea. However, hybridization barriers during early stages of embryo development curtail access to this trait. Since hormones play an essential role in early embryo development, we have determined the hormone profiles of 4-, 8-, and 12-day old(More)
When a covariance structure model is misspecified, parameter estimates will be affected. It is important to know which estimates are systematically affected and which are not. The approach of analyzing the path is both intuitive and informative for such a purpose. Different from path analysis, analyzing the path uses path tracing and elementary numerical(More)