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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal type of brain cancer. To identify the genetic alterations in GBMs, we sequenced 20,661 protein coding genes, determined the presence of amplifications and deletions using high-density oligonucleotide arrays, and performed gene expression analyses using next-generation sequencing technologies in 22(More)
Auditory brainstem response (ABR) techniques, an electrophysiological far-field recording method widely used in clinical evaluation of human hearing, were adapted for fishes to overcome the major limitations of traditional behavioral and electrophysiological methods (e.g., invasive surgery, lengthy training of fishes, etc.) used for fish hearing research.(More)
The proteins encoded by ATRX and DAXX participate in chromatin remodeling at telomeres and other genomic sites. Because inactivating mutations of these genes are common in human pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs), we examined the telomere status of these tumors. We found that 61% of PanNETs displayed abnormal telomeres that are characteristic of a(More)
Tyrosine phosphorylation, regulated by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and kinases (PTKs), is important in signaling pathways underlying tumorigenesis. A mutational analysis of the tyrosine phosphatase gene superfamily in human cancers identified 83 somatic mutations in six PTPs (PTPRF, PTPRG, PTPRT, PTPN3, PTPN13, PTPN14), affecting 26% of colorectal(More)
Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor of children. To identify the genetic alterations in this tumor type, we searched for copy number alterations using high-density microarrays and sequenced all known protein-coding genes and microRNA genes using Sanger sequencing in a set of 22 MBs. We found that, on average, each tumor had 11 gene(More)
The identification of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), fumarate hydratase (FH) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations in human cancers has rekindled the idea that altered cellular metabolism can transform cells. Inactivating SDH and FH mutations cause the accumulation of succinate and fumarate, respectively, which can inhibit 2-oxoglutarate(More)
In the adult population, glioblastoma multiforme is one of the most common primary brain tumors encountered. Unfortunately, this highly malignant tumor represents over 50% of all types of primary central nervous system gliomas. The vast majority of GBMs develops quite rapidly without clinical, radiological, or morphologic evidence of a less malignant(More)
Fish hearing specialists (e.g., goldfish, holocentrids, clupeoids, mormyrids) have evolved specialized structures (e.g., Weberian ossicles, swimbladder diverticulae, gas-filled bullae) to enhance their auditory frequency range and threshold sensitivity. The inner ears of anabantoid fish are encased in membranous cranial bones and are protruded into(More)
Mormyrid fishes use acoustic signals for long-distance communication and a weakly electric field for short-distance interaction. Mormyrids are unique in having an otic gasbladder attached directly to the saccule on each side of the inner ear. Karl von Frisch (1938) hypothesized that the tightly coupled otic gasbladder might aid mormyrid hearing. Using the(More)