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CD28 ligation delivers a costimulatory signal important in T cell activation. This study demonstrates that the disruption of the CD28/B7 pathway early in the nonobese diabetic mouse strain, using CD28-/- and CTLA41g transgenic mice, promoted the development and progression of spontaneous autoimmune diabetes. Functional analyses of T cells isolated from(More)
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease that is characterized by the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the islet of Langerhans. We have recently reported that the induction of the disease in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice can be prevented by a single injection of CFA. In this study, we have explored the cellular basis and the(More)
The role of IL-4 in the cellular interactions leading to the induction of CTL tolerance to H-2b alloantigens and to the development of a lupus-like autoimmune disease in BALB/c mice after neonatal injection with (C57BL/6 x BALB/c)F1 cells was investigated in vivo by using an anti-IL-4 mAb. Treatment of F1 cell-injected BALB/c mice with 15 mg of anti-IL-4(More)
The 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) has been implicated in autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice, but the role of the 67-kDa GAD isoform (GAD67) is less clear. We found that immunization of 4-week-old NOD mice with purified recombinant mouse GAD67 prevented or significantly delayed the onset of diabetes. To further explore this phenomenon,(More)
The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse is an excellent model of insulin-dependent (type I) human diabetes mellitus. We report that a single injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) given at an early age (5 wk) prevented the appearance of diabetes and greatly increased the life span of NOD mice without additional therapy. No treated mouse developed(More)
Optimal T cell responsiveness requires signaling through the T cell receptor (TCR) and CD28 costimulatory receptors. Previously, we showed that T cells from autoimmune nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice display proliferative hyporesponsiveness to TCR stimulation, which may be causal to the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Here, we(More)
The BB rat spontaneously develops an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) that closely resembles this disease in man. The pathogenesis involves autoimmune destruction of pancreatic islet beta-cells. In the present study, a single intraperitoneal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in diabetes-prone (DP) BB/Wor rats between 9 and 28 days of(More)
Oral administration of protein can induce antigen-specific immune hyporesponsiveness. However, the utility of oral tolerance to autoantigens in the treatment of autoimmune diseases may be limited when candidate autoantigens cannot be produced by conventional systems in quantities sufficient for clinical studies. Plants may be ideally suited for this(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. There is increasing evidence to suggest that miRNAs participate in muscle development in mice and humans; however, few studies have focused on miRNAs in porcine muscle tissue. Here, we experimentally detected and identified conserved(More)
IQGAPs, GTPase-activating proteins with an IQ motif, are thought to regulate many actin cytoskeleton-based activities through interactions with Cdc42 and Rac. Recently, Cdc42 was implicated in regulation of gastric parietal cell HCl secretion, and IQGAP2 was immunolocalized with Cdc42 to F-actin-rich intracellular canalicular membranes of isolated gastric(More)