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The mechanism of Michael addition of malononitrile to chalcones catalyzed by Cinchona alkaloid aluminium(III) complex has been investigated by DFT and ONIOM methods. Calculations indicate that the reaction proceeds through a dual activation mechanism, in which Al(III) acts as a Lewis acid to activate the electrophile α,β-unsaturated carbonyl substrate while(More)
We describe a method to measure the concentration of 224 Ra and 226 Ra in the heavy water target used to detect solar neutrinos at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory and in the surrounding light water shielding. A water volume of 50–400 m 3 from the detector is passed through columns which contain beads coated with a compound of manganese oxide onto which the(More)
As photodisintegration of deuterons mimics the disintegration of deuterons by neutrinos, the accurate measurement of the radioactivity from thorium and uranium decay chains in the heavy water in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is essential for the determination of the total solar neutrino flux. A radium assay technique of the required sensitivity is(More)
Kinetic studies on the reactions of Y-aryl phenyl isothiocyanophosphates with substituted X-anilines and deuterated X-anilines were carried out in acetonitrile at 55.0 °C. The free-energy relationships with X in the nucleophiles were biphasic concave upwards with a break region between X = H and 4-Cl, giving unusual positive ρX and negative βX values with(More)
The reactions of Z-aryl dimethyl (1), methyl phenyl (2), and diphenyl (3) phosphinates with X-anilines in dimethyl sulfoxide at 60.0 °C are studied kinetically. Kinetic results yield the primary normal deuterium kinetic isotope effects (DKIEs) involving deuterated aniline (XC(6)H(4)ND(2)) nucleophiles, k(H)/k(D) = 1.03-1.17, 1.15-1.29, and 1.24-1.51, and(More)
The accurate determination of π-bond energies, D(π), in doubly-bonded species has been an important issue in theoretical chemistry. The procedure using the divalent state stabilization energy defined by Walsh has been suggested, and the procedure seems to be conceptually reasonable and applicable to all kinds of doubly-bonded species. Therefore, the aim of(More)
To develop new highly energetic materials, we have considered the design of molecules with high nitrogen content. Possible candidates include 1,3,5-triazine derivatives. In this work, we studied potential synthetic routes for melamine using the MP2/6-31+G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. The mechanisms studied here are stepwise mechanism beginning with(More)
The nucleophilic substitution reactions of Y-O-aryl methyl phosphonochloridothioates with substituted anilines (XC(6)H(4)NH(2)) and deuterated anilines (XC(6)H(4)ND(2)) are investigated kinetically in acetonitrile at 55.0 degrees C. The Hammett and Brønsted plots for substituent (X) variations in the nucleophiles are biphasic concave downwards with a break(More)
The densities of high energetic molecules in the solid state were calculated with a simplified scheme based on molecular surface electrostatic potentials (MSEP). The MSEP scheme for density estimation, originally developed by Politzer et al., was further modified to calculate electrostatic potential on a simpler van der Waals surface. Forty-one energetic(More)
In this study, we examined the gas-phase pyrolysis of ethyl N,N-dimethylcarbamate theoretically at various theoretical levels. The reaction consists of a two-step mechanism, with N,N-dimethylcarbamic acid and ethylene as reaction intermediates. In the first step, the reaction proceeds via a six-membered cyclic transition state (TS), which is more favorable(More)
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